Archive for April, 2011

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Note – I have slightly revised this blog, “toning it down” so it will not be as hurtful to my many friends in the EFCI.
I am researching the prevalence of Spiritual Formation and Emerging/ Emergent teachings in various Quaker/Friends colleges, universities and seminaries. I have been looking mostly for schools with EFCI connections. I stumbled across a list (at the bottom of this blog), which hopefully will help others sort out the various Quaker/Friends institutions.

The EFCI (Evangelical Friends Church International) has traditionally been the ONLY “orthodox”, born again, evangelical Quaker denomination. The other Quaker denominations – FGC, FUM, NEYM and PYM all label themselves as non-evangelical.

[Click here for a slightly different grouping of the different Quaker denominations. This info is provided by a non-evangelical Quaker website.]

Yet in these times, even EFCI schools are getting involved with Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings. In some cases  EFCI schools have actually been leaders in promulgating these teachings. For example, EFCI’s George Fox University and Seminary has pushed various teachings, including Richard Foster’s Spiritual Formation ala Celebration of Discipline.

Also, individuals and groups from many Friends denominations are increasingly fellowshipping under the banner of “Convergent Friends” – a term closely tied with Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings.

Note also that denominational distinctions are becoming less and less of an issue. Most Friends denominations are associating closely in ecumenical organizations such as the FWCC (Friends World Committee for Consultation).

To me personally, all of the above developments are very discouraging. I grew up in the EFC-ER/Ohio Yearly Meeting, which eventually became a part of the EFCI (Evangelical Friends Church International). The EFC-ER/Ohio Yearly Meeting was the most “doctrinally pure,” born again Yearly Meeting in the United States. Members of this yearly meeting were commonly known as “Holiness Friends” or “Gurneyite Friends.” I feel VERY strongly that the EFC-ER/Ohio Yearly Meeting should have remained “doctrinally pure.” It should have remained a separate entity, rather than joining the EFA (Evangelical Friends Alliance) in 1965. (The EFA was later renamed the EFCI.)

Now on to the list of Friends institutions, with their affiliations [I have bolded the affiliations]:

“Quaker Colleges and Schools in the United States”
Mar 03, 2010
(Excerpt from http://www.quakerinfo.org)

Colleges and Universities

• EFCI — Evangelical Friends Church International
• FGC — Friends General Conference
• FUM — Friends United Meeting
• NEYM — New England Yearly Meeting
• PYM — Philadelphia Yearly Meeting

a. Azusa Pacific University (APU) – Azusa, California. Officially non- denominational. The Friends Center is “the seminary experience of Evangelical Friends Church Southwest (which belongs to the EFCI) at C.P. Haggard Graduate School of Theology.”

b. Barclay College – Havilland, Kansas. “Associated with Friends Church [which denomination?] although does not officially specify an affiliation.” Barclay is very much into Spiritual Formation; it even has a Center for Spiritual Renewal [Spiritual Formation].

c. Bryn Mawr College – Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. Founded as a Quaker institution, now non-denominational.

d. Earlham College – Richmond, Indiana. Affiliated with Western Yearly Meeting of Friends United Meeting (FUM).

e. Friends University – Wichita, Kansas. Founded as a Quaker institution, now non-denominational with “an amicable but independent relationship with the Society of Friends” (EFCI). Spiritual Formation’s Richard Foster was a “professor of theology and writer-in-residence” here, from 1979 to ____ (1)

f. George Fox University (GFU) – Newburg, Oregon. Affiliated with Northwest Yearly Meeting of Friends (EFCI).

George Fox Evangelical Seminary – Newburg, Oregon. Affiliated with Northwest Yearly Meeting of Friends (EFCI).

GFU and GFES are very much into Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings. I am appalled to see such teachings in the EFCI, which in 1965 (as the EFA) was in my opinion a “fundamentalist evangelical” denomination. Today the EFCI is becoming more and more a “progressive evangelical” denomination.

By the way, all of the following heretics have all either attended or taught at GFU and/or GFES: Tony Campolo, Richard Foster (1), Dan Kimball, and Leonard Sweet.

g. Global College – Founded as Friends World College by New York Yearly Meeting (Friends General Conference), now part of Long Island University and not officially affiliated with Friends.

h. Guilford College – Greensboro, North Carolina. Founded as a Quaker college and continues to be governed by members of the Society of Friends [which denomination?].

i. Haverford College – Pennsylvania. Founded by members of the PYM [Philadephia Yearly Meeting]. Remains rooted in Friends tradition and grounded in Quaker practice [non-evangelical], but without formal affiliation.

j. Houston Graduate School of Theology (HGST) – Houston, Texas. “Identifies with the Quaker movement,” grounded in Evangelical Friends theology and practice. [I think this school associates with the SWYM of the EFCI. But I doubt it is still fundamentalist evangelical. One of its teachers publically states she is a “Spiritual Director”, teaching Spiritual Formation. I’ll be researching this school.]

k. John Woolman College of Active Peace – Brattleboro, Vermont. Founded as a Quaker college and continues to be governed by members of the Society of Friends [which denomination?]. I would hardly call this a college – it seems to be more of an online forum.  Perhaps this was an actual institution in years past.

l. Johns Hopkins University – Baltimore, Maryland was founded by a Quaker and most early trustees were Quaker although officially non-denominational.

m. Malone University – Canton, Ohio. Sponsored by Evangelical Friends Church – Eastern Region (EFC-ER) of the EFCI.

Malone University Graduate School – Theological Studies – Canton, Ohio. Sponsored by Evangelical Friends Church – Eastern Region (EFC-ER) of the EFCI.

Note – some professors from Ashland Theological Seminary (ATS) also teach at Malone University Graduate School. ATS is very much into Spiritual Formation.  And, many graduates of Malone University go on to pursue their graduate degrees at the ATS campus.

n. Pacific Oaks College – Pasadena, California. Graduate school of education based around a children’s school founded by Quakers. Strong Friends influence although no formal affiliation.

o. Swarthmore College – Pennsylvania. Founded by Hicksite PYM, now independent.

p. Whittier College – California. Founded by Quakers, now independent with “an appreciation for Quaker values.”

q. William Penn University – Oskaloosa, Iowa. Founded by Quakers, no formal affiliation. “The university is firmly rooted in its Christian heritage with certain characteristics distinctive to Quakers, but welcomes faculty, staff and students from all faiths.” [I’m curious what they mean by “from all faiths” – do they mean “other world religions, and do they consider themselves an “interfaith” school?]

r. Wilmington College – Wilmington, Ohio. Founded by Quakers, associated with Wilmington Yearly Meeting (FUM).

Source: http://www.neighborhoodlink.com/Louisville_Friends_Meeting_Quaker/pages/387296

[I have added a number of notes to the original list.]

See also this lengthy list of schools:


(1) Click here for blog entitled “Spiritual Formation founder Richard Foster’s ties with EFCI (Evangelical Friends).”

Note – much of this info overlaps with a Wikipedia list. I am in the process of combining all this info regarding colleges and seminaries.

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(revised 04/05/13)

It is well known in the Spiritual Formation movement and Emerging/ Emergent/Emergence movements that Richard Foster has a Quaker background. I’m not sure what denomination he associates himself with now, but he has had close ties throughout his life with the Evangelical Friends denomination (today Evangelical Friends Church International aka EFCI).

In fact, Foster grew up in a Yearly Meeting which eventually joined the EFA (later renamed the EFCI). This makes me very angry – this heretic and I both grew up in Yearly Meetings which became part of today’s EFCI (1). I hope Foster is proud of himself. The Spiritual Formation movement Foster popularized has helped hijack “old fashioned fundamentalist” evangelicalism. Foster has played a huge part in the continuing demise of born again, biblically sound evangelicalism, in countless denominations including the EFCI.

Richard Foster’s classic, Celebration of Discipline, first came out in 1978, popularizing Spiritual Formation with its occultish spiritual discipline of contemplative prayer/contemplative spirituality. Ironically, he did not introduce Celebration of Discipline while in one of the more liberal Quaker denominations (such as Friends United Meeting or, worse, Friends General Conference), but while in the historically born again  EFCI.

These close ties with the EFCI may help explain why the Spiritual Formation writings of Foster, Dallas Willard and other such heretics have caused irreparable harm to many EFCI congregations. Specifically, these EFCI churches are increasingly being drawn into the heresies of Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings.

In light of Richard Foster’s numerous close ties with the EFCI, it seems very odd that more has not been written exposing these ties. Amazingly, many Evangelical Friends (particularly in the older generation):

1) Have never heard the terms Spiritual Formation, Emerging Church, or Emergent Church – nor do they recognize these teaching when they arise in their own churches.
2) Have never heard of Richard Foster.
3) If they have heard of Richard Foster, they do not realize Richard Foster was in the EFCI for many years.

Following are several bios of Foster, showing his connections with the EFCI. (I hope to add more details to this blog as I locate them).

Following is a listing of Foster’s “life events”. Note his various connections with Friends churches (I’m assuming all the Friends churches mentioned belong to what is now the EFCI.)

CAREER: Alamitos Friends Church, Garden Grove, CA, minister of youth, 1962-67; ordained clergyman of Society of Friends (Quakers), 1967; Family Counseling and Research Center, Garden Grove, counselor, 1967-68; Arcadia Friends Church, Arcadia, CA, associate pastor, 1968-70; Woodlake Avenue Friends Church, Canoga Park, CA, pastor, 1970-74; Newberg Friends Church, Newberg, OR, pastor, 1974-79; Friends University, Wichita, KS, professor of theology and writer-in-residence, beginning 1979; Renovare, Englewood, CA, founder and director. George Fox College, adjunct professor, 1974-79. Public lecturer. Member of publications board of California Yearly Meeting of Friends.

Click here for a critique of Richard Foster, which includes the following bio:

Quaker and Fuller graduate (holds a doctorate in pastoral counseling), Richard Foster is co-founder of Renovaré, and Professor of Spiritual Formation at Azusa Pacific University in Southern California. Foster became an ordained clergyman for the Society of Friends in 1967. He’s held pastoral positions in ‘Friends’ churches since that time and became Professor of Theology and writer-in-residence, 1979 on, at Friends University in Wichita and adjunct professor at George Fox College, from 1974-1979. He is a member of the publications board of California Yearly Meeting of Friends. He obtained his B.A. in Philosophy and Religion from George Fox College (now University)  and D.Th.P, Biblical Studies and Social Ethics in 1970, from Fuller Theological Seminary.
Here is Richard Foster in his own words, in a recent blog (I have emphasized certain points by bolding and [bracketing]. I have rearranged statements from Foster’s blog chronologically:

… In 1964 I received a Bachelor of Arts in Religion & Philosophy at George Fox College [now George Fox University] near Portland, Oregon [this is an EFCI college/university]

[At some point, Foster also taught at George Fox College.]

Carolynn and I were married in 1967 at Alamitos Friends Church [now known as Garden Grove Friends Church (GGFC)](2) in Garden Grove, California, the church in which I grew up and then served as Minister of Youth [for five years (4)][GGFC is in what today is called Southwest Yearly Meeting of EFCI.]

… in 1970 [I] received a Doctor of Pastoral Theology in New Testament & Social Ethics at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California.

Following graduation from Fuller Theological Seminary I accepted a call to be the Pastor [with Dallas Willard at] Woodlake Avenue Friends Church (3) [from 1970-1974 (4,5)] in Canoga Park, California [I’m trying to find out more about this church – I assume it was renamed; I don’t know whether it was in the EFCI]. Those were years of hammering out the themes that would later emerge in Celebration of Discipline. Next, I served on the Pastoral Team at Newberg Friends Church in Newberg, Oregon where I shared the preaching assignments with Pastor Ron Woodward and the various tasks of ministry with a gifted team of pastors. It was also here that I wrote .

Here another Internet article picks up the story of Foster’s life:

Following the publication of Celebration, Foster wrote [several other books]. His career in writing and speaking was growing. Then, when Foster’s children entered their teenage years, suddenly he stopped writing…

Foster continued working as a professor of Theology at Friends University in Wichita, Kansas and directing The Milton Center, formerly the Center for Christian Writers

Now back to Foster’s self-bio:

I suppose I am best known for my book Celebration of Discipline. It was a effort to re-introduce the classical Disciplines of the spiritual life to a Christian community largely alienated from this rich tradition. In addition, I have written Freedom of Simplicity, Money, Sex, & Power (now titled The Challenge of the Disciplined Life),  PRAYER: Finding the Heart’s True Home, Prayers from the Heart and Streams of Living Water. There is a book length complication of my writings entitled Seeking the Kingdom. In addition, I have co-edited two volumes; Devotional Classics (with James Bryan Smith) and Spiritual Classics (with Emilie Griffin). Perhaps my most ambitious project to date is as Editor of the Renovaré Spiritual Formation Bible. This involved four General Editors and some fifty contributors.

In 1988 I established Renovaré, which includes many gifted leaders in its ministry team. Previously I had been instrumental in the founding of two other organizations – The Academy of Christian Editors [renamed The Milton Center] and The Chrysostom Society, a fellowship of writers of Christian conviction. Renovaré, however, is where I have expended my most strenuous effort and into which I have distilled my most creative thought. Today all three organizations continue to thrive under new and vigorous leadership.

Through the years I have served in a variety of ministry positions: e.g. Minister of Youth, Adolescent and Family Counselor, Coordinator of Inner City Ministries, and Associate Pastor. 

I am looking for ties between Foster and the Friends/Quakers later in his life.

Foster does make mention of the EFCI and other Quaker groups – and his ties with them – in his other writings. And here are a few other links alluding to Foster’s connections with Quakers:

1) My blog providing excerpts from a Christianity Today interview. Here Foster talks about his early connections with Evangelical Friends, and the development of his Spiritual Formation teachings.

2) Quakerinfo.com article (note especially the first two paragraphs):


3) Wikipedia article (see especially the first paragraph):



(1) Foster grew up in California Yearly Meeting (CYM); I grew up in Ohio Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite)(OYM). In 1965, CYM, OYM, and several other Yearly Meetings joined to form the Evangelical Friends Alliance (EFA). The EFA was later renamed EFCI (Evangelical Friends Church International).

(2) I was immediately turned off by Garden Grove Friends Church’s website. They have a link as of 05/23/11 entitled “Upcoming Events – Jesus Labyrinth.” I am very much opposed to Spiritual Formation’s use of New Age-ish prayer labyrinths.

(3) http://www.dwillard.org/articles/artview.asp?artID=98

(4) http://hopekaibear.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/witness-whome1.pdf

(5) Check out this excerpt: An early laboratory for Willard’s theology was a little Quaker church in the San Fernando Valley that the Willards attended in the 1970s. The founder of the Renovaré movement, Richard Foster, was the pastor. Willard led singing, and Jane played the organ. “I was fresh out of seminary and ready to conquer the world,” Foster recalls. “Dallas was so patient with me. He really, in a way, pastored from the pew. … When I would teach, folks might come, but when Dallas taught, they brought their tape recorders. We all did.” Foster recalls sensing that they were “onto something big” when Willard taught through the Book of Matthew.
Source: http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/article_print.html?id=38475

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Update:  I have made an attempt to “tone down” most of my blogs about Evangelical Friends/Quakers, to not be so hurtful to my many friends in the EFCI (and EFC-ER). Yet when I see what is going on, I still feel compelled to speak out. Read on.
The Northwest Yearly Meeting (NWYM) is a Region of the EFC-NA, when belongs to the Evangelical Friends Church International (EFCI) denomination. I was reading through the NWYM document entitled “Faith Expressed as Doctrine.” It seems biblical for the most part. The wording sounds a bit awkward at points, but on most points it strikes me as well grounded. For example, consider the following:

Human Redemption: We believe that God created the human being, male and female, in His own image; but that when Adam and Eve fell from a state of holy obedience, the human race lost a perfect relationship to God, and self instead of the Creator became the center of life. Through the blood of Christ our Savior we may be recovered from the fall and made right (justified) before God. To those who put their faith in Christ, God offers forgiveness of sins, regeneration of affections and actions, and final glorification of the resurrected body.

Here are the doctrinal points covered in the document:

1. God as Creator
2. God’s Revelation in Christ
3. God’s Revelation by the Spirit
4. God’s Revelation in the Scriptures
5. Human Redemption
6. The Baptism with the Holy Spirit
7. The Church
8. God’s Kingdom
9. The Spiritual Experience
10. Worship

Recently, NWYM has struck me as being the most theologically liberal, “progressive evangelical”, Emerging/Emergent Region in the EFCI. Yet their doctrinal statement above sounded so biblical… I began looking over other parts of the NWYM website, to see if the beliefs expressed there match their doctrinal statement.

I perused the Books and Videos Catalog, at the following link: http://nwfriends.org/resources/catalogs/

Clicking on a few links, I then ended up at: http://www.librarything.com/profile/nwfriends

Here are the categories of books and videos:

Children’s Ministry (77)
Christian Education and Discipleship (113)
Congregational Care (129)
Discernment Resources (21)
Elders (30)
Finance and Stewardship (13)
Global Outreach (57)
Leadership Development and Enrichment (105)
Local Outreach (34)
Peacemaking (44)
Quakerism (31)
Recording Reading List (67)
Spiritual Formation/Classics (76)
Worship Resources (56)
Youth and Young Adult Ministry (196)
All collections (572)

After looking over this list, I then perused the titles under Spiritual Formation/Classics (there are a total of 76 titles). I found the following titles (among many others that I would consider far from evangelical, born again Christian):

Celebration of Discipline: The Path to Spiritual Growth, by Richard J. Foster

Christian Educator’s Handbook on Spiritual Formation, The, by Kenneth O. Gangel

The Deeper Life: An Introduction to Christian Mysticism, by Louis Dupre

Inner Compass: An Invitation to Ignatian Spirituality, by Margaret Silf

Joining Children on the Spiritual Journey: Nurturing a Life of Faith,
by Catherine Stonehouse

Labyrinth [a portable labyrinth kit]

Reaching Out: The Three Movements of the Spiritual Life, by Henri J. M. Nouwen

Reimagining Spiritual Formation: A Week in the Life of an Experimental Church, by Doug Pagitt

The Shack, by William P. Young

Streams of Living Water: Celebrating the Great Traditions of Christian Faith, by Richard J. Foster

Thoughts In Solitude, by Thomas Merton

The Way of the Heart: The Spirituality of the Desert Fathers and Mothers,
by Henri J. M. Nouwen

Wellsprings: A Book of Spiritual Exercises, by Anthony De Mello

When the Soul Listens: Finding Rest and Direction in Contemplative Prayer,
by Jan Johnson

Zen and the Birds of Appetite, by Thomas Merton

The above looks like a booklist from a liberal/mainline church library (such as that of the United Methodist Church, or the Episcopalians, or  the United Church of Christ). Nope, this booklist is from the supposedly born again, biblically sound Northwest Yearly Meeting.

QUESTION: Why does the Northwest Yearly Meeting have these titles in their lending library? The answer in my mind, is, there is a huge disconnect between “faith” and “practice.” To put it another way, Evangelical Friends in the Northwest Yearly Meeting claim to be walking close to the Lord and following their document entitled “Faith Expressed as Doctrine.” Yet they are incorporating Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings which are far from biblical. Frankly, I wonder if there are any individuals left in the Northwest Yearly Meeting who have not become “progressive evangelicals.”

In a word, the lending library booklist is not just an anomaly. The entire Northwest Yearly Meeting is full of Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings. Richard Foster, Leonard Sweet, Dan Kimball, etc. all have close ties with the Northwest Yearly Meeting, George Fox University, and George Fox Evangelical Seminary.

Few of the books in the Northwest Yearly Meeting lending library would be found in the church libraries of the more biblically sound EFC-ER (Evangelical Friends Church-Eastern Region). Yet the EFC-ER continues to maintain ties with the Northwest Yearly Meeting and the other more liberal/progressive Regions of the EFCI. How can the EFC-ER continue to associate with these Regions without being negatively affected?

The EFC-ER will “lose its soul” theologically if it maintains these associations and accepts teachings such as those promulgated in the above books. In fact, there are already many in the EFC-ER who see no problem with Northwest Yearly Meeting, or George Fox University, or George Fox Seminary, or Richard Foster, or Emergent/Emergent teachings. Regarding the “innocent sheep” in the EFC-ER (particularly in the smaller churches) who are not yet aware of the “Liberal 2.0 transformation” heading their way, I pray that it’s not too late to wake them up…

I’m currently researching the Northwest Yearly Meeting, to learn when they started down this long, slippery slope to apostasy. I’ve found these few bits of info so far:

NORTHWEST Yearly Meeting of Friends Church
<http://www.nwfriends.org/> opened 1893/06 as Oregon Yearly Meeting, set off from the Progressive, now FUM, branch of Iowa Yearly Meeting. It joined in founding FUM in 1902 but withdrew in 1926. It joined in founding EFA in 1965 and the succeeding EFI in 1989…  Ralph K. Beebe, A Garden of the Lord: A History of Oregon Yearly Meeting of Friends Church (1968), contains histories of nearly all monthly meetings established in the first 75 years.

Source: https://www.quakermeetings.com/Plone/yearlymeetings

My question is: were the Northwest Yearly Meeting and/or the other Regions already headed down the road to apostasy when they joined the EFA in 1965? Or did they “turn bad” after that point? And if they were already becoming liberal/apostate, why did the born again, biblically sound Ohio Yearly Meeting  join with them in forming the EFA?

Finally, it does not appear that the EFCI (or the EFC-ER) are going to turn from Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings. After striving in vain to persuade various individuals (in various denominations), I have come up with the following Summary Statement:

We want these things to stop being taught in our denominations, to cease completely. And with the eternal destiny of so many souls at stake, we will not take “no” for an answer. Either the churches stop teaching these things, or we will plead with their members to LEAVE, to “run for your life” as Carter Conlon so movingly put it. It’s as simple as that.

Click here for a step by step guide to leaving an apostate church and locating a biblical church.

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NOTE – Regarding the list of schools below, I hope to do research on each school and “expand” the links. When you click on a link that has a note such as “I have revised this link”, you will be led to a separate page on this blogsite that has a number of articles documenting the school’s involvement with Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings.
Tragically, it is becoming more and more difficult to find biblically sound Christian colleges and seminaries.  Most Christian schools we have come across are teaching about Spiritual Formation and the Emerging/Emergent Church movements. However, some schools are pushing these views more than others. Lighthouse Trails has provided a list of schools they are aware of, that we as born again Christians should avoid.

My reasons for providing this entire list are twofold:

1) Like Lighthouse Trails, I want to warn readers to avoid these schools.

2) I am personally familiar with about a dozen of these schools. I hope to do more research on these schools, providing the results here.

I have condensed this list slightly, removing some of the links such as the “alphabetical table of contents” and the “return to top” links. I am also adding some links as I locate them. The original list from Lighthouse Trails can be found at:


Following is their recently updated list (revised by me):

Christian Colleges That Promote Contemplative
(i.e., Spiritual Formation)

Also see our database of articles on Christians colleges that promote contemplative.

Click here to see our list of colleges and seminaries that DO NOT promote contemplative. [I have revised this link – Dave Mosher]

Click a letter below to see listings. If you are looking for specific information about any of the listed colleges, visit our blog and type the school name into the blog search engine. Also go to the school’s site and type in particular terms such as spiritual formation, Nouwen, lectio divina, which will help you find the documentation you need.

Abilene Christian University [I have revised this link – Dave Mosher]

ACTS Seminaries of Trinity Western University
BC, Canada

Alberta Bible College [I’m looking for a better link – DM]
Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Ambrose University
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
(information about contemplative classes)

American Christian College & Seminary
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
PMN 3373 Christian Spirituality: A Biblical and historical overview of the concept of Christian spirituality. Exposes the student to various disciplines such as journalling, meditation on Scripture, prayer, solitude, fasting and contemplative Bible study.

Anderson University [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Anderson, IN
(Invited Sue Monk Kidd to a speaking event in March 2011)

Ashland Theological Seminary [I have added this link – DM]
Ashland, OH

Assemblies of God Theological Seminary
Professor Earl Creps
Doctor of Ministry Program Associate Professor of
Leadership and Spiritual Renewal

Assemblies of God Theological Seminary
Valley Forge Christian College Branch Campus
Phoenixville, PA

Assemblies of God Theological Seminary
Lakeland, Florida

Azusa Pacific University
Haggard School of Theology
Azusa, CA
Example: Transitions in Ministry

Baptist Theological Seminary of Southern Africa

Barclay College
Haviland, Kansas

Baylor University
Waco, TX

Belmont University
Nashville, Tennessee

Bethel Seminary
San Diego, St. Paul, East Coast campus

Biblical Theological Seminary
Hatfield, PA

Biola University
(Institute of Spiritual Formation)
aka: Talbot School of Theology
ISF 532 Developmental Spirituality & Contemplative Prayer   

Briercrest Bible College
Saskatchewan, Canada

Bryan College [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Dayton, TN

Calvin College
Grand Rapids, MI

Canadian Mennonite University
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
A Contemplative Approach to Youth Ministry 

Carey Institute 
Vancouver, BC

Cedarville University [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Cedarville, OH

Christian Theological Seminary
Indianapolis, IN

Cincinnati Bible Seminary
Cincinnati, OH

Columbia Theological Seminary (Presbyterian)
Decatur, GA

Colorado Christian University
Lakewood, CO

Cornerstone University
Grand Rapids, MI
Spiritual Formation Department

Dallas Theological Seminary
Dallas, TX

Eastern Mennonite Seminary
Harrisburg, VA

Emmanuel Bible College
(Text book list even includes Brian McLaren)
Kitchner, Ontario, CA

Emmanuel School of Religion
Johnson City, Tennessee

Fresno Pacific University
Fresno, CA

Fuller Theological Seminary
Various Campuses Throughout US

George Fox University Seminary

Newberg, Oregon
See SFAD 556 Spirituality and the Writings of the Mystics – Included in the course is a small group practicum to assimilate contemplative practices into the student’s devotional life.
See adjunct professors.

Gordon College
Wenham, Massachusetts

Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary
South Hamilton, MA
Spiritual Formation for Ministry Program
(various professors)

Grace Theological Seminary
Winona Lake, IN

Grand Canyon College [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Phoenix, AZ
connected with Ken Blanchard and has a spiritual formation program

Greenville College
Greenville, IL

Hope College
Holland, MI
(see 2010 textbook list)

Hope International University (AKA: Pacific Christian College)
Spiritual Formation with Professor David Timms

Fullerton, CA

Houghton College [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Houghton, NY

Indiana Wesleyan University
(mentoring program)
Division of Religion & Philosophy with
Youth Specialties

Intervarsity Christian Fellowship NW
Portland, OR

John Brown University
Siloam Springs, AR
Bachelor of Science Degree with
Major in Youth Ministries

John Wesley College
Dean: Dr. Dion Forster

Lincoln Christian University
Lincoln, IL

Liberty University
Lynchburg, VA

Luther Rice Seminary/University [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Lithonia, GA
Spiritual Formation with Dallas Willard/Robert Webber

Malone University
Canton, OH
Dr. David M. Oliver [I added this link-DM]
J. Walter Malone: Has his dream for Evangelical Friends been lost? [I added this

Mars Hill Graduate School
Bothell, WA 98021
President Dan Allender [I’m looking for a better link-DM]

Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary
Fresno, CA
President, Lynn Jost

(Spiritual Formation)

Mid America Nazarene University [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Olathe, Kansas

Milligan College [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Milligan College, TN

Moody Bible Institute
Chicago, Illinois

Mount Vernon Nazarene University
Mt. Vernon Chapel Schedule [I added this link]

Multnomah School of the Bible [I’m looking for a better link-DM]

New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary
New Orleans, LA

Dr. Francis Kimmitt

Northern Baptist Theological Seminary
Lombard, IL

Northeastern Seminary
Rochester, NY

Northpark University [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
and Northpark Theological Seminary
(Evangelical Covenant Church)

Northwest Nazarene University [I’m looking for a better link-DM]

Nyack College [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Nyack, NY

Oklahoma Wesleyan University [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Bartlesville, OK

Oral Roberts University [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Tulsa, OK

Palm Beach Atlantic University
Palm Beach, Florida

Pepperdine University (Bible Lectures)
Malibu, California

Prairie College of the Bible
Alberta, Canada

Providence College and Seminary
Otterburne, Manitoba, Canada

Rockbridge Seminary [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Springfield, MO 65804

Rocky Mountain College
Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Samford University
Birmingham, AL

Shorter College
Rome, Georgia

Simpson University
Redding, CA

Southeastern University
Lakeland, Fl

Southwest Baptist University
Bolivar, Missouri

Spring Arbor University [I’m looking for a better link-DM]

Taylor University
Upland, IN
Youth Conference

Trevecca Nazarene University
Nashville, TN
Spiritual Formation Program

Trinity Western University
Langley, B.C. Canada
Graduate Program in Counseling Psychology

Trinity International University
Deerfield, IL

Tyndale University College & Seminary
Toronto, CANADA

Vanguard University[I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Spiritual Formation Program

Western Seminary [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Portland, Sacramento, San Jose

Westmont College [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Santa Barbara, CA

Wheaton College Graduate School [I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Spiritual Formation and Psychology

Whitworth University[I’m looking for a better link-DM]
Spokane, WA

William Carey Institute 
Vancouver, BC

   Biola University
has gone off the deep end!
Biola not only hosted the Christian Spirituality & Soul Care Conference, which speakers included contemplative author David Benner, author of Sacred Companions, they have joined forces with Larry Crabb, Richard Foster and Dallas Willard as the Spiritual Formation Forum.

Colleges and Seminaries That Represent the Spiritual Formation Forum.
See the Board of Directors

Trinity International University
Deerfield, IL

Trinity Evangelical Divinity School
Deerfield, IL

Dallas Theological Seminary
Dallas, TX

Regent College
Vancouver, BC, Canada

Regent University (Course)
Virginia Beach, VA

Colorado Christian University
Morrison, CO

Saddleback Community Church
Maturity Team

Excerpt from
The Emerging Church:
Ancient Faith for a Post-Modern World

“Among the many authors to pay attention to are Vintage Faith pastor Dan Kimball, author of The Emerging Church and Emerging Worship; Drew University professor Leonard Sweet (Postmodern Pilgrims; A Is for Abductive); youth pastor Tony Jones (Postmodern Youth Ministry; Read, Think, Pray, Live); Robert E. Webber, author of The Younger Evangelicals and Ancient-Future Faith: Rethinking Evangelicalism for a Postmodern World; Spencer Burke, Sally Morgenthaler-the list is far too extensive to include all the recommended authors here. For the most thorough collection of postmodern resources that I know of, go to http://www.agts.edu, click on ‘Free Resources,’ and then click on the folder labeled ‘Emerging Culture/Emerging Church.’ That will give you access to a PDF file of 1,700-plus resources amassed by Assemblies of God professor Earl Creps, a man for whom many in the emerging church movement give thanks daily.”

Criswell College and the Emerging Church Movement?
 The Criswell Theological Review, a publication of Criswell College, devotes an entire issue to discussing the Emerging Church movement.
In the Spring 2006 edition of the Criswell Theological Review (a publication of Criswell College), articles written by Emerging Church authors and an interview with Brian McLaren leave one to wonder just what exactly CTR editor, Alan Street, had in mind when he put this issue of the newsletter together. Correctly recognizing Brian McLaren as a leading representative of the Emerging Church indicts the movement. One can only wonder at this point if Criswell College (named after Dr. W.A. Criswell – Rick Warren’s mentor), is heading towards Emergent.Related Information:
Colleges and Seminaries That Promote Contemplative Spirituality

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(revised 01/25/14)

The Confessing Movement is very encouraging, a bright spot in the sea of End Times apostasy. It consists primarily of individuals attending mainline churches.

Following is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on “the Confessing Movement”, found here (Wikipedia is probably not the most accurate source). I have emphasized points by bolding and added comments in [brackets].

Here is the Wikipedia excerpt:

“The Confessing Movement is an Evangelical movement [primarily] within … mainline Protestant denominations to return those churches to what the members of the movement see as theological orthodoxy.

It relates and cross pollinates with other conservative Christian movements such as Evangelicals, Pentecostals, Holiness groups, Anabaptists, and Fundamentalists. Its members have a stated commitment to remain in their home denominations, unless forced out, to stay and work for reform from within, in contrast to what they see as other modern reform movements that splintered Protestantism into thousands of denominations. They acknowledge that full reform of their churches may not be achieved. Of particular concern to those in the Confessing movement has been a perceived lack of concern for, or non-evangelical approaches to, evangelism, to the deity of Christ, to questions of sexuality and homosexuality in particular.”

I found several denominational lists of Confessing Movements:

1) In the Wikipedia article mentioned above, there are sections dealing with Confessing Movements in the following denominations:

4.1 Presbyterian
4.2 Methodist
4.3 Episcopalian/Anglican
4.4 Church of the Brethren
4.5 Lutheran
4.6 United Church of Christ

Read through each of the above sections, and you will find a number of links to related websites for each denomination.

2) The Association for Church Renewal website provides links to the following denominational Confession Movements:

American Baptist Church
Anglican Communion Episcopal Church
Church of the Brethren
Disciples of Christ Christian Church
Evangelical Lutheran Church In America (ELCA)
Presbyterian Church USA
United Church of Canada
United Church of Christ
United Methodist Church

Source: http://www.associationforchurchrenewal.com/

3) Mennonites
Source: http://www.fcminformer.org/

4) Finally, the longest list, at Wikinoah.org. Note the following comment in this article: “each mainline denomination has within it a Confessing Movement or renewal movement which is more conservative in tone.”

Here is the list of mainline denominations (I am searching for the Confessing Movement websites for each of these denominations):

  • American Baptist Churches USA 1,442,824 members (2001)[4]
  • Armenian Apostolic Church / Catholicossate of Cilicia
  • Armenian Apostolic Church / Catholicossate of Etchmiadzin
  • Assyrian Church of the East 120,000 members (1989)[5]
  • Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) 804,842 members (2001)[6]
  • Congregational Christian Churches, (not part of any national CCC body)
  • Dutch Reformed Church 9,395 members (2001)[7]
  • Eastern Orthodox Church: American Diocese
  • Episcopal Church in the United States of America
  • Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church
  • Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 5,099,877 members (2001)[8]
  • International Council of Community Churches 200,263 members (2000)[9]
  • Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
  • Metropolitan Community Church 44,000 members (1998)[10]
  • Moravians (religion) in America, Alaska Province
  • Moravians (religion) in America, Northern Province 24,650 members (2003)[11]
  • Moravians (religion) in America, Southern Province 21,513 members (1991)[12]
  • National Association of Congregational Christian Churches 65,569 members (2000)[13]
  • North American Baptist Conference
  • Presbyterian Church (USA) 3,455,952 members (2001)[14]
  • Reformed Church in America 285,453 members (2001)[15]
  • Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)
  • United Church of Christ 1,359,105 members (2001)[16]
  • United Methodist Church 8,298,145 members (2001)[17]

Source: http://www.wikinoah.org/index.php?title=Mainline#_note-ardamain

Perhaps the Confessing Movement can provide us with a working model for how to deal with Spiritual Formation and the Emerging/ Emergent Church movements. We should examine the Confessing Movement groups more closely, to see how they have organized themselves and spoken out in protest against their denominations. (I am still trying to locate specific Confessing Movement criticisms of Spiritual Formation and the Emerging/Emergent Church movements; the criticisms located so far have used more general terms, such as “the deity of Christ”, “biblical inerrancy”, etc.)

Up to this point, I have recommended leaving any denomination that is getting swallowed up in Spiritual Formation and the Emerging/Emergent Church movements. One problem with this approach, however, is as follows. Suppose one leaves an Emerging Church (Emerging Churches still retain at least some biblical doctrines). As concerned Christians continue leaving an Emerging Church, it eventually becomes Emergent (aka Liberalism 2.0) – no biblical attenders are left.

On the other hand, if one remains in a Spiritual Formation/Emerging/Emergent church with a FAMILY, he risks exposing his family members to false teachings which will very likely lead them away from biblical Christian faith. My best advice for those with families, under these circumstances, would be to pray, pray, pray about whether you should stay or leave. Consider factors such as your spiritual strength, the spiritual strength of your spouse, and the spiritual strength of your children (as well as their ages).

There are individuals whose Christian faith grows when confronted; they are tried and tested and end up maturing when their pastors try to present false teachings. This was the case for me. During my “single years,” I attended several churches that were biblically sound at one point. As they changed and started falling into apostasy, I felt led to  study their doctrinal errors; I eventually moved on to more biblically sound churches. I can honestly say I am a more mature, knowledgeable, discerning Christian for having attended all of these churches. And, hopefully I can help others encountering similar false teachings in their churches.

(I’m looking for more recent publications)

The Rebirth of Orthdoxy: Signs of New Life in Christianity, by Thomas C. Oden (2002), pp. 140-153 (click on the TITLE to read online)

The Remnant Spirit: Conservative Reform in Mainline Protestantism,
by Douglas E. Cowan (2003)(click on the TITLE to read online)

In Googling for more info, I also found two less common terms for the Confessing Movement: “Renewal Movement” and “Remnant Movement.”

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I have been searching for quotes from biblically sound Quakers. More specifically, Quakers in the Ohio Yearly Meeting of Friends, from the years 1854 (the Gurneyite Schism) through 1965. Members of Ohio Yearly Meeting also referred to themselves as Gurneyite Friends, Orthodox Friends, Holiness Friends, and more recently, Evangelical Friends.

I came across the Ohio Yearly Meeting’s 1877 and 1879 statements condemning George Fox’s teaching of the “Inner Light.” Following are a few excerpts. I have emphasized certain points by bolding and [bracketing]:

The Meeting of Ministers and Elders of Ohio Yearly Meeting in 1877, “was brought into deep exercise and travail concerning unsound and mystical views and expositions which appear here and there in certain of our members, in opposition to the plain Scriptural doctrines of man’s darkness and deadness in sin by nature, and his redemption therefrom by the Lord Jesus Christ… it was concluded that a non-acceptance of this doctrine is a manifest disqualification for the station of Minister or elder…

We do not believe that there is any principle or quality in the soul of man, innate or otherwise, which, even though rightly used, will ever save a single soul; but that it pleased God, by the foolishness of preaching, to save them that believed; and the Holy Spirit is sent to convince the ungodly of sin, who, upon repentance towards God, and faith in Jesus Christ who died for us, are justified by his blood; and we repudiate the so-called doctrine of “Inner Light,” or “the gift of a portion of the Holy Spirit in the soul of every man,” as dangerous, unsound, and unscriptural.

In 1879 the following minute was added:

“… [To teach the Inner Light] is to imply that a capacity to receive salvation, is a portion of salvation, and that Light in the heart from Christ, however dim, is actually Christ Himself… It is a dangerous mysticism which knows no distinction between a Principle or an Influence, and Deity himself, continually confusing the two…”

Source: Minutes of the Ohio Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1879, pp. 28-30

I have access to additional resources – mainly by Edward Mott – discussing the OYM position against the Inner Light teaching. I have had some strong favorable feedback, expressing interest in reading more about the OYM position. I hope to place more of these OYM writings online.

Interesting – Holiness/Evangelical Friends back in 1877 condemning the “Inner Light” teaching. Yet today it seems that many members of the EFCI (Evangelical Friends Church International), especially outside the EFC-ER, see no problem associating with non-evangelical Quakers. These evangelical Friends seem to be condoning (or at least accomodating) “unsound and mystical views and expositions” including the “Inner Light” teaching. I, on the other hand, believe very strongly that we should separate ourselves from Quakers who hold such ungodly, antibiblical teachings.

Click here for my more recent blog on this, entitled “Quaker beliefs re: the “Inner Light” and salvation.”

By the way, I could not help but notice the 1877-1879 references to the “mystic” teachings of George Fox (considered one of the earliest Protestant mystics).

Interestly, Richard Foster introduced Spiritual Formation (via his book Celebration of Discipline) while pastoring an Evangelical Friends church. In essence, Richard Foster is a “modern Christian mystic”, following in the path of George Fox. (However, unlike George Fox, Foster incorporates practices from many other “faith traditions”/world religions, not just Quakerism.)

Regarding the teachings of Foster and other modern Christian mystics – why is it that the EFCI (like so many other evangelical denominations today) is not condemning the teachings of Spiritual Formation? Members of  the EFCI who hold to Spiritual Formation know that it includes the Spiritual Disciplines. And they take part in numerous practices under the discipline of contemplative prayer/contemplative spirituality. Do they not realize that these contemplative prayer/ contemplative spirituality practices are inherently mystic/ New Age-ish/occultish? God help the EFCI!

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For those unfamiliar with Spiritual Formation, here’s the scoop. Spiritual Formation was introduced by Quaker “mystic” Richard Foster with his bestselling 1978 book Celebration of Discipline. Here are the basics: Spiritual Formation consists of various spiritual disciplines. The most dangerous aspect of Spiritual Formation is the spiritual discipline of contemplative prayer (also called contemplative spirituality). (We’ll refer to this as CP/CS.)

CP/CS  practices form the very core of Spiritual Formation. It is impossible to “practice”  Spiritual Formation without including CP/CS. And CP/CS is rotten – it comes straight from the pits of Hell. Why do I say this? Because it incorporates many mystic/occult practices. These practices are drawn, as Richard Foster puts it, “from other faith traditions.” What are the these “other faith traditions?” Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, the New Age movement, and other nonbibical, anti-Christian world views!

I am particularly appalled by the “heaviest” contemplative practices among many evangelicals in Spiritual Formation currently: breath prayer, centering prayer, lectio divina – and yes – labyrinth “prayer”!  If so-called Christians do not repent of ALL contemplative practices, I believe the following saying will apply: “we ain’t seen nothin’ yet.”

To see where evangelical students of Spiritual Formation (SF) are headed in contemplative practices, watch carefully the Mainline/liberal SF programs and Catholic SF programs. Their contemplative practices have gone way beyond the contemplative practices of most evangelical SF programs. If evangelicals do not leave this downward path, I believe they will end up “doing” all the contemplative practices of mainline/ liberals, Catholics, and worse. As mentioned above, many gullible evangelicals are already using the New Age practice of walking the labyrinth.

Now for a list. These are a few of the many CP/CS practices to watch out for in your church or denomination – there are probably hundreds of more practices.

Art as Prayer
Blessing (The Blessing)
Breath Prayer
Care of the Earth
Catholic Mass
Centering Prayer
Dance (Body Prayer)
Fixed-hour Prayer
Gregorian Chant
Guided Imagery
Holy Conversations
Imaginative Prayer
Inner-healing Prayer
The Jesus Prayer
Labyrinth Prayer
Lectio Divina (Scripture Meditation)
Listening to Wisdom
Making Crosses
Meditation on the Heart’s Longing
Music as Prayer
Peace Poles
Practicing the Presence
Prayer of Recollection
Prayer Ropes
Prayer Walking
Praying in Color
Praying the Psalms (repetitively)
Praying the Scriptures (repetitively)
Praying with Beads
Praying with Icons
Praying with the Body
Praying with the Mystics
Rule for Life
Saints (Praying with the Saints)
Scriptio Divina (Sacred Writing)
The Sign of the Cross
Soaking Prayer
Spiritual Direction
Spiritual Friendship
Stages of the Journey
Stations of the Cross
Tai Chi
Taize Worship
Truth Telling
Unstructured Retreats
Walking Meditation
Walking Meditation in Nature
Writing as Prayer
Yoga (Sacred Yoga)

Note – some of the practices in the above list came from these sources:

[For more info on any of the above terms, try Googling them.]

And the list goes on… and on… and on…  Often, perfectly sounding practices (such as  “Devotional Reading” and “Praying the Psalms” ) can be twisted into mystic CP/CS practices.

For longer lists of CP/CS practices, see the following resources. IN NO WAY do I recommend these – these are simply resources to help you determine whether CP/CS is going on in your church:

1) Spiritual Disciplines Handbook

This is very insightful book listing contemplative practices – and explaining in detail how to “do” them. What’s really shocking about this handbook, is, this book is put out by an historically evangelical publisher (IVP):

To see the Table of Contents (which lists the contemplative practices) via Amazon.com, click on the “Read Inside” caption above the book’s cover photo.

2) 50 Ways to Pray: Practices from Many Traditions and Times, by Teresa A. Blythe (from Abingdon, a mainline Protestant publisher)

Examine this book closely. This is just one of many non-evangelical “Christian” books listing various contemplative practices.

To see the Table of Contents which lists the 50 ways to “pray,”  click on the “Read Inside” caption above the book’s cover photo.

3) The Contemplative Mind Tree (on a New Age website)

This New Age diagram also provides an online list of CP/CS practices.

And click here for a long list of Spiritual Formation individuals to watch out for. There are hundreds more not listed here.

Note – make sure you know what your children are being taught. Believe it or not, there are church groups teaching teens various CP/CS practices without informing the parents. In some churches, pre-teens and children even younger are being taught these practices.

If you see any of these practices in your church, confront your pastor about them. If your pastor does not realize these practices are mystic/occult, try to share resources with him about the dangers of these practices. If he still refuses to believe and/or acknowledge that these practices are mystic/occult, take your family and leave the church!

Here are a few more Christian articles exposing Contemplative Prayer/ Contemplative Spirituality:

“Contemplative/Centering Prayer“, by Ken Silva
Contemplative Prayer and the Evangelical Church, by Ray Yungen

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(revised 11/12/13)

I was seriously considering revising this blog, so it would not be as hurtful to my many friends in the EFCI. However, I have decided against toning down the blog; I want to show the exact wording to which a high official in the EFCI responded. (See his comments and my responses at the bottom of this blog.) Note – since then I have added additional statements to my original blog.

Click here for a detailed critique of the EFC-ER and EFCI. And click here for a detailed history of the EFC-ER.
J. Walter Malone [click here for  a brief bio] was the founder of Cleveland Bible Institute, which today is Malone University. Yet today Malone University is being drawn down the same slippery path as many other colleges, seminaries and churches in the EFCI (Evangelical Friends Church International) denomination. All these institutions are being drawn deeper into Spiritual Formation, the Emerging/Emergent/Emergence movements, and ecumenical Quakerism, and other heretical, liberal teachings. Surely J. Walter Malone and other like minded Ohio Evangelical Friends of his era would “roll over in their graves.”  (By the way, J. Walter Malone was a contemporary of one of my favorite born again, biblically sound Ohio Evangelical Friends – Edward Mott –  whom I have written about in other blogs.)

Consider these excerpts from the book entitled The Quakers in America, by Thomas D. Hamm (pp. 58-59):

Not all Gurneyite Friends approved of [liberal Quaker Rufus] Jones or his vision. By 1900, many of the surviving leaders of the Great Revival… were strong critics. They perceived Jones and his sympathizers as unenthusiastic about revivalism and prone to overintellectualizing religion… The most important opponent of Jones, however, was of his generation: J. Walter Malone.

Malone was born into an old Quaker family in southwestern Ohio in 1857 and moved to Cleveland as a young man, where he achieved considerable success in business. He and his wife Emma had become converts to holiness Quakerism, and in 1892 decided to use their wealth to found [Cleveland Bible College], a Bible college or “training school for Christian workers,” as they called it, which eventually became the Friends Bible Institute… The Malones and all of the teachers at Cleveland were deeply suspicious of Quaker modernism. [I wonder if this “deep suspicion” applied to all teachers through the time of the school’s relocation/renaming in 1957.] By questioning the inerrancy of Scripture,[Quaker modernism] threatened the authority of the Bible. By emphasizing the Inner Light, it seemed to minimize the need for definite experiences of conversion and sanctification. By stressing social service and reform, it seemed to suggest that humans could save the world, rather than looking to the Second Coming of Christ. And by dwelling on the mercy and love of God, it seemed to ignore His judgment [emphasis mine; notice how similar the modernist Quaker teachings are to the Emergent Church teachings of today]. In 1902, Malone began publishing a journal, the Soul Winner, to advance his views. In 1905 he changed its name to the Evangelical Friend, which became increasingly outspoken in its attacks on Jones and other modernist Quakers.

Malone and his coadjutors were consciously part of the larger movement in American Protestantism that [in later years] would become known as fundamentalism.

For the next two decades, modernists and holiness Friends struggled for the control of the Five Years Meeting and its yearly meetings. The battle had at least three fronts. One was the personnel of the Five Years Meeting – its central office staff and its missionaries. Central to this struggle was the American Friend, the official organ [edited by Rufus Jones until 1912, then edited by like minded liberal Quakers]. The second front was the Quaker colleges. [Sound familiar? Colleges and seminaries today are one of the main venues in which Spiritual Formation and the Emerging/Emergent Church movements are brainwashing today’s Evangelical Friends youth.] Holiness Friends did their best to exclude modernist teachings from schools like Earlham in Indiana, Whittier in California, Pacific in Oregon, Friends in Kansas, and Penn in Iowa. The results were uneven… [Several following pages are unavailable online – I am hoping to locate this book in a Quaker archive.]



I find it disconcerting that one of J. Walter Malone’s own family seems to have attempted revising history, to paint a different picture of what J. Walter Malone was all about. Specifically Malone’s son-in-law, Dr. Byron L. Osborne (The Malone Story, 1970 edition, p. 223). In years past I have personally had deep respect and admiration for Dr. Osborne, who for a time was  President of Malone College/University). I have recently learned that, apparently, Dr. Osborne revised J. Walter Malone’s story to be a feel-good, non-offensive history (non-offensive to non-evangelical Quakers, that is).

Over the years, assorted Ohio Evangelical Friends have tended to leave out or reinterpret the parts of history in which fundamentalist Gurneyite Quakers battled modernists, including non-evangelical Quakers. They have portrayed all Quakers as “equally Christian” in God’s eyes, whether they were evangelical or non-evangelical. Dr. Osborne seems to have followed this trend. His repainting of his own father-in-law J. Walter Malone seems to have contributed to a conciliatory effort to unite with non-evangelical Quakers in Quaker ecumenism. He has downplayed and/or denied the argumentative, anti-modernist side of J. Walter Malone. In The Malone Story (1970 edition, pp. 21-24), Dr. Osborne presents  a few short quotes trying to prove that J. Walter Malone “was not a controversialist.” He includes a quote from liberal “social gospel” Quaker Rufus Jones implying Jones and J. Walter Malone were on good speaking terms. Yet Dr. Osborne fails to mention the reams of articles in J. Walter Malone’s The Soulwinner and The Evangelical Friend [both periodicals are housed in the Malone University Friends Archives] in which Malone passionately and incessantly condemned non-evangelical Quakers including Rufus Jones.

To summarize, it seems that various Ohio Evangelical Friends have been complicit in reinterpreting or even denying the “negative” anti-modernist side of J. Walter Malone and of Gurneyite Quaker history. For this and other reasons (such as Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings – see below) I personally feel deeply betrayed by these complicit Evangelical Friends whom I once trusted and admired as my denominational leaders.

How pathetic and ironic, that non-evangelical writers have provided detailed  information about the history of fundamentalist/anti-modernist Gurneyite Quakers, whereas Ohio Evangelical Friends/Gurneyite Quaker writers themselves have provided us very scant info and/or revisionist Quaker histories.

To put this in context, this “revision” of the fundamentalist, “controversialist” side of J. Walter Malone was typical of actions being taken in many other evangelical denominations in the twentieth century.

I would say evangelicals between 1900-1970 including the Ohio Evangelical Friends – represented by Dr. Byron Osborne and Dr. Everett L. Cattell among others – went through several steps toward apostasy:

1948 – The Ohio Evangelical Friends took a big step towards losing the fundamentalist-modernist battle when the National Association of Evangelicals was formed. (Although the Evangelical Friends did not join the NAE, they were affected by their teachings.)

1957 – The Ohio Evangelical Friends lost further ground in 1957, with the beginning of the Billy Graham Crusades.

1965 – Another tragic step toward apostasy occurred in 1965, when Ohio Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite) joined with more liberal Yearly Meetings to form what is today the Evangelical Friends Church International (EFCI) denomination.

1970 – The last nail in the coffin was the St. Louis Conference, in which Dr. Cattell insisted on the forming of an ecumenical alliance with non-evangelical Quakers (in spite of opposition from some Ohio Evangelical Friends who were present).

To backtrack a bit: I have had great respect and admiration for Dr. Cattell in years past. It was only recently that I learned Dr. Cattell had been hoping for Quaker ecumenism very early in his life – and strove throughout his life to make this dream come true. I have no doubt that Dr. Cattell and the other Ohio Evangelical Friends/Gurneyite Quakers mentioned here thought highly of the teachings of New Evangelicalism. As with Dr. Osborne, I have felt a deep sense of betrayal and of being deceived upon learning these things about Dr. Cattell.

Fast forward to today’s apostate situation. The Evangelical Friends denomination (EFCI), like many other evangelical denominations, is far different from the denomination of 100 years ago. The gospel message preached by fundamentalist Gurneyite “holiness Friends” such as J. Walter Malone seems to have been lost in the modern apostate sea of Spiritual Formation and the Emerging/Emergent Church movements. The EFCI appears to be condoning (or at least accommodating) not only the false teachings of other Quaker denominations. The EFCI also appears to be condoning the liberal leanings of all of its Regions.  (The Regions outside of the EFC-ER have always tended to be more liberal/ progressive than the EFC-ER (Evangelical Friends Church-Eastern Region, formerly called Ohio Yearly Meeting).

How tragic! I’m sure there are many attenders of Evangelical Friends churches that are concerned about this. But, unlike the fundamentalist-modernist controversy of J. Walter Malone’s day, there are few if any modern Evangelical Friends leaders that have stood up and loudly protested. Referring to the lack of concerned and discerning church leaders throughout evangelicalism today, it has been said:

“Where are the watchmen on the wall?”  (source unknown)

Just a note regarding Cleveland Bible College, and its replacement Malone College/Malone University. How ironic that J. Walter Malone and Dr. Everett Cattell were on opposite sides of the ecumenical Quakerism fence.  J. Walter Malone strongly opposed ecumenical Quaker efforts, while Dr. Cattell pushed strongly for ecumenical Quakerism. The irony lies in the fact that J. Walter Malone founded  Cleveland Bible College, which was relocated and renamed as Malone College in 1957 (and now is named Malone University); Dr. Cattell later became President of Malone College/University.

One final question to those who think I’m being a troublemaker, too critical of the EFCI leadership. If J. Walter Malone were alive today, do you think he would be protesting Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent Church teachings in the EFCI? Of course he would!

For further reading and research, go to the following URL:


You should see about 290 results. Click on “Preview available” on the left, and you should see about 75 results – resources readable online. Many of these online resources show bibliographies listing further resources.

Also, there are various Quaker libraries with archives. I hope to provide a list of these archives elsewhere (along with their websites), perhaps in a separate blog.


J. Walter Malone Collection

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(revised 03/02/12)

Update: I have made an attempt to “tone down” most of my blogs about Evangelical Friends/Quakers, to not be so hurtful to my many friends in the EFCI (and EFC-ER). Yet when I see what is going on, I still feel compelled to speak out. Read on.
Recently I came across some intriquing info about Edward Mott, an Evangelical Friends minister and teacher. To me he seems very biblically sound. And, he was a staunch opponent of  Quakerism ecumenism.

In 1981, Convergent/Emergent Quaker Chuck Fager wrote an interesting article discussing Quaker ecumenism. I am providing an excerpt below.

Fager started off by speaking favorably of Jack Willcuts and Dr. Everett Cattell – two Evangelical Friends leaders who endorsed Quakerism ecumenism. Fager then turned around and described Edward Mott in rather derogatory terms as follows:

“Edward Mott, who was a leading minister and teacher in [Northwest Yearly Meeting] for many years earlier in [the twentieth century], strongly and bitterly opposed any moves toward ecumenical contacts or fellowship among what were then much more fragmented groups of Friends. In his memoir, Sixty Years of Gospel Ministry, published in the late 1940s, he insisted, as he had for decades, that such efforts “cannot have the blessing of the Lord upon them.” In fact, he insisted that “The attempt to fellowship and work with unbelievers [non-evangelical Quaker denominations] spells death. Any conclusion to the contrary is ruinous to all concerned.” He vehemently denounced the efforts to reunite Orthodox and Hicksite Yearly Meetings, which were then nearing success in New England and Philadelphia. He described with considerable relish his address to an “All-Friends Conference” in Oskaloosa, Iowa in 1929, the intention of which he had earlier said was “to thwart the very purpose for which the conference was held, the promotion of fellowship among the groups.” He was also a fervent and relentless opponent of the American Friends Service Committee, for having undertaken work for peace and justice on other than an exclusively evangelistic basis, and particularly for its role in setting up the Oskaloosa meeting.” (Source: http://afriendlyletter.com/AFL-archives/AFL-archives/006-AFL-%209-1981.pdf)

Mott warned of the apostasy Evangelical Friends would be swallowed up in, should they become a part of Quaker ecumenism. Evangelical Friends leaders failed to heed his warning. In 1970, at the St. Louis Conference on the Future of Friends, Evangelical Friends leader Dr. Cattell and others went ahead with plans for Quaker ecumenism. This, in spite of the fact that many Evangelical Friends in 1970 opposed this move.

I hope to locate additional resources by and about Edward Mott. He was an excellent role model for the rest of us concerned Evangelical Friends. Truly he was a man of vision and a man of God.


…  in 1927 …  a group of 11 Quaker Evangelicals met in a YMCA in Cheyenne, Wyoming, to discuss ways to counter theological liberalism within the Society of Friends. The convener of the group was Edward Mott of Oregon, a leading Quaker fundamentalist voice. These Quaker leaders targeted organizations supported by mainline Quakers, such as the American Friends Service Committee, the Friends Committee on National Legislation, and the National Council of Churches, as symbols of liberalizing trends within Quakerism. (Source: William Kostlevy, Historical Dictionary of the Holiness Movement, p. 109)

FURTHER RESOURCES by and about Edward Mott:

The Friends Church in the Light of Its Recent History, by Edward Mott (Portland, OR, self published, 1935, ASIN: B004D67XUM)

The Inner Light versus Christ, The Light, by Edward Mott [a booklet]

Sixty Years of Gospel Ministry, by Edward Mott

Through Flaming Sword, by Arthur O. Roberts (can preview many pages online)

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