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Archive for the ‘EFC-ER’ Category

(blog under construction)

Dear readers:

I know I’ve come across as very caustic in many of my blogs about Evangelical Friends. But I truly do love the teachings of the Ohio Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite) and what they stood up for between approx. 1854-1965. I believe the Evangelical Friends have nearly lost many of the biblically sound fundamentalist stands J. Walter Malone, Edward Mott and others in the Ohio Yearly Meeting took vs. modernism, Quaker modernism, Christian universalism (the Inner Light teaching), Quaker ecumenism, etc.

Not to mention more recent heretical movements within evangelicalism that are gaining momentum among Evangelical Friends. Such as Spiritual Formation, postmodern (Emerging/Emergent/Emergence) teachings, postmillenial dominionist Emergent/Kingdom Now eschatology, Third Wave Pentecostal IHOP teachings, etc. etc. It breaks my heart.

I find it shocking that very few Evangelical Friends are speaking out openly against heresies invading their churches. Instead, most “concerned Evangelical Friends” seem to be quietly leaving the Evangelical Friends churches for “safer ground” – bibically sound churches such as the Independent Fundamentalist Baptists. Instead of “quietly” leaving, concerned Evangelical Friends need to first confront their pastors, youth leaders, etc. about false teachings. To those who say nothing: you are putting remaining attenders at risk of  falling into false teachings.

I’d also like to receive more feedback from Evangelical Friends who disagree with my blogs – I think these things need to be discussed/debated so people realize what’s going on. Other evangelical denominations (such as the Nazarenes) seem to be much more open about discussing the doctrinal changes that have taken place in their denominations over the years. Nazarenes on all sides of the issues have written a number of books and articles discussing major doctrinal shifts. Among the Wesleyan Holiness denominations, the Nazarenes seem to be the most prolific writers.

Ecumenical and Convergent Quakers use this phrase: “let the conversation continue.” I would modify this to: “let the open, honest discussions/ debates over doctrinal changes increase.”

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(revised 02/21/12)

The Evangelical Friends Church International(EFCI) in recent years has been adopting the eschatology of many other evangelical denominations. Specifically, it is becoming heavily involved in postmillenial Emerging/ Emergent/Kingdom Now eschatology. Click here and here for several of my blogs on this.

Ironically, this heretical theme of postmillenial Emerging/Emergent/Kingdom Now eschatology fits Malone University‘s logo with the phrase “Christ’s Kingdom First,” which Malone adopted years before the Emerging/Emergent movements. Although Malone is still the most biblically sound of the Evangelical Friends schools, its increase in Emerging/Emergent courses is troubling.

Check out the titles and course summaries in Malone’s Master’s Degree program in Theology. I have several questions:

Who thought up these “kingdom” titles?
How long have the courses been taught under these titles?
Why the “kingdom” theme?

Click here for the original listing of Malone graduate Theology courses. I have emphasized certain points by bolding, and inserted comments in [brackets]. Also, I have underlined key phrases in the course titles:

THEO 510 – Christian Scripture: Interpreting the Kingdom Story (3) – Teaching others is one of the most common expressions of leadership in the Christian church. For many church workers, teaching will be the primary way in which they lead. The most important prerequisite for skilled teaching is the ability to correctly interpret and apply Christian scripture. This course will refresh and deepen students’ knowledge of the Old and New Testaments, and will aid them in developing the skills necessary for explaining even the most difficult Bible passages to others.

THEO 515 – History and Doctrine of the Church: Highlights from Kingdom Heritage (3) – A solid understanding of history and doctrine is fundamental to effective service in the church. The ancient church’s struggle with doctrine and heresies shaped what Christians confess today. Moreover, the contemporary church can learn from its past and can see in the church’s history and doctrine the way in which the bride of Christ is being prepared to meet him.

THEO 521 – Introduction to Hebrew and Greek: The Kingdom Languages as a Tool of Ministry (3)[So far I have not find the term “Kingdom Languages” used anywhere else on the Internet – only in this course]This course introduces the vocabulary and grammar of biblical Hebrew and Greek and reference works pertinent to Bible study and lesson preparation. The emphasis is not on memorization, but on understanding the languages and opening up the riches of Hebrew and Greek-based reference works to enrich personal spiritual life and ministry and facilitate the use of the finer, language-based commentaries.

THEO 532 – Theology of Humanity: Created in the Image of the King (3) – What does it mean that people are created in God’s image? How does sin affect our relationships? Why do God’s people suffer in this world? What is the key to human redemption? How do these concerns intersect with the practice of people-helping professions? In an effort to answer these questions from a Christian worldview, the course integrates multi-disciplinary insights from the fields of Christian ministry, theology, psychology, and nursing.

THEO 543 – Communicating the Gospel: Presenting the Message of the Kingdom (3) – This course seeks to help students improve their communication skills in a variety of settings where the kingdom message is proclaimed. Such settings include public teaching, worship, public prayer, Bible study, small groups, and evangelism. The contexts of communication and methods of effective communication are analyzed. Practical exercises with peer review to hone personal communication skills will also be included.

THEO 547 – Spiritual Care: Sharing the Compassion of the King (3) – The course is designed to help students prepare for spiritual leadership in congregations and other Christian ministries. An emphasis is given to the biblical and theological interpretation of spiritual care as applied to families and to individuals (young children to senior adults). The art of spiritual care includes compassionate communication and the practice of prayer and spiritual guidance during periods of both joy and crisis.

THEO 621 – Ethics of the New Testament: Living to Honor the King (3) – Focusing on the life and moral teaching of Jesus as well as the ethics of Paul, this course will explore what it means to live the Christian life as a citizen of a kingdom that has been inaugurated, but awaits consummation.

THEO 622 – Theology of the Old Testament: The Mission of the King (3) – The Old Testament is not merely a witness to God’s activity in the past, nor is it just an outdated book now replaced by the New Testament. Rather it is an essential instrument of God’s own mission—a mission that stretches from eternity past and continues to unfold in the present day. In addition to providing a survey of the discipline of Old Testament theology, this course will help students better understand the Old Testament’s purpose within the context of God’s mission and will lead them to reflect on the implications of this mission for Christians today. Christ’s church in fact shares in the mission of the Old Testament [I’m not sure where the Old Testament speaks of its mission as being the Great Commission]—to make known to all the earth, in both word and deed, the Name that is above every other name.

[Note Malone’s phrase in both word and deed. Now compare this with an EFC-ER statement: ““In joyful obedience to Jesus’ Great Commission–and in the spirit of His Great Commandment–our movement purposes to serve the church and the world in love, multiplying disciples and churches in the power of the Holy Spirit so that our children’s grandchildren and generations of the un-reached will be compelled to join.” Click here for my blog discussing this Emerging/Emergent wording, as well as this postmillenial eschatology.]

THEO 623 – Evangelism and Discipleship in the New Testament: The Kingdom Reclaims the World (3) – This course examines how the early church analyzed and adapted the gospel message to the Greco-Roman world and its many subcultures, and how it nurtured its young converts to a mature faith. Examples include Jesus’ use of agrarian imagery, Paul’s adaptation of the gospel for urban settings, and Matthew’s reworking of Mark [this is a liberal view of the synoptic gospels] to create a discipleship manual. With these creative and effective models, the course will identify and evaluate current models of evangelism and discipleship, as well as analyze current American culture(s) to identify ways to be more effective in reclaiming the world for the kingdom [this is a postmillenial Emerging/Emergent/Kingdom Now phrase].

THEO 631 – Christianity and Culture: Worship and Witness before the King (3) – Within the context of an increasingly secular culture, how should Christians understand the Church’s mission? Is the Church primarily a provider of spiritual goods and services to individuals in a consumerist society? Should the Church focus primarily on meeting the needs of spiritual seekers? [“Spiritual seekers” is a term for nonchristians; the term is also applied to New Agers.] Or is the Church necessarily a counter-cultural witness to a King and a Kingdom that are always coming, and as yet, not fully here? [Again, this is terminology used by postmillenial Emerging/Emergent/Kingdom Now teachers.] How will our answers to these questions influence the way that we understand Christian worship, spiritual formation, evangelism, etc.? This course will draw deeply on biblical, historical, and theological sources in order to examine what it means to say that the Church is missional at its core. [Spiritual formation and missional: two Emerging/Emergent terms.]

THEO 633 – Current Theological Controversies: Seeking to Understand the Message of the King (3) – In this life, there will always be disagreement over theological issues. How can we dialogue constructively with each other about controversial subjects? By examining disputed areas of theology (e.g., eternal security, miraculous gifts, salvation through other religions, how to discern God’s will), students will clarify their own convictions by conversing about difficult matters that are potentially divisive within God’s kingdom.

THEO 641 – Leadership in Christian Communities: Serving the King (3) – Sound leadership in the church always grows from a correct theological understanding of the unique nature of the church as the Body of Christ. A communion of saints stretching across time and space, yet having specific local forms and realizations, the church is like no other organization on earth. This course grounds the practice of church leadership in ecclesiology (theology of the church). It explores important contemporary organizational and leadership theory (team building, motivation, change management) in the light of the church’s unique identity.

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(blog under construction)(revised 01/20/12)

I thank the Lord that the EFC-ER traditionally has taken a stand against “charismatic excesses.” Specifically, at their 1970 Yearly Meeting, officials passed a statement worded something like this:

The EFC-ER realizes that various attenders are praying in tongues. These attenders may continue to attend EFC-ER churches. However, they will not be permitted to speak in tongues openly in EFC-ER churches. The EFC-ER holds to these wise words from the Apostle Paul:

33) For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints…  40) Let all things be done decently and in order. (I Cor. 14:33, 40, KJV)

(The above is the gist of their statement, not the exact wording. I am looking for the original text of their statement.)

In the last few years, Charismatic (Second Wave) and/or Third Wave Pentecostal teachings have again cropped up in  in EFC-ER churches –  in a big way – and have had to be dealt with by the EFC-ER.  I was shocked to learn that  several close acquaintances of mine have become involved with IHOP. Formerly in positions of EFC-ER church leadership, these acquaintances have left the EFCI denomination (of which EFC-ER is a part) and are now ministering with IHOP. EFC-ER churches are still saying “no” to Charismatic and IHOP teachings; I applaud the EFC-ER churches for taking this stand. (These church transitions are very “touchy” to say the least. I feel no need at this point to go into more details; the main thing is that these IHOP individuals have left the EFC-ER churches.)

Unfortunately, IHOP teachings are now entering the EFC-ER through another venue: Malone University’s MUHOP student group. Question: why has Malone allowed students to form an IHOP group? I believe Malone should take a stand against IHOP and Third Wave Pentecostal teachings, just as various churches in the EFC-ER have done. IHOP teachings are far different from the traditional, historic biblical doctrines of the EFCI and Malone University.

Following are links to the MUHOP website and several related websites:

MUHOP website (provides a tab at top to JHOP; also provides a non-working tab to IHOP-Canton, which I assume is Canton House of Prayer)
MUHOP/FCA Facebook Group
JHOP House of Prayer- Canton
JHOP House of Prayer – Canton Facebook Group
Canton House of Prayer

Dangerous, heretical IHOP teachings pose a far greater threat to the EFC-ER than the “speaking in tongues” issue of the 1970s.

Note – I am not saying that members of MUHOP are engaged in all the heretical teachings listed below. On the contrary, it seems most MUHOP members are at the introductory level of IHOP teachings. But they are at risk of getting involved in the deeper, more dangerous, more heretical aspects of IHOP.

IHOP is very cult-like. On the surface, IHOP presents itself as a vibrant, growing prayer movement. However, like an onion, pealing back IHOP’s layers reveals deeper levels saturated with dangerous, heretical, even occultish teachings and practices. I would say this to MUHOP members: peel  back the layers of IHOP, to see for yourselves how dangerous and heretical IHOP is. Do your research – there are many Internet blogs and articles exposing the dangers and heresies of IHOP.)

IHOP HERESIES

1) IHOP is not an isolated movement. It is part of a much larger, extremely dangerous movement – the New Apostolic Reformation (NAR), also called the “Third Wave of Pentecostalism.” There are many other related terms to research, including “Elijah’s List” (click here and here) and “Dominionism.”

2) IHOP is a “back door” to Richard Foster’s occultish contemplative spirituality, which has already invaded many Regions of the EFCI (and is becoming more prevalent in the EFC-ER).

3) IHOP has connections with the heretical TACF (Toronto Airport Christian Fellowship), referred to by many simply as “Toronto.”

4) IHOP has connections with extremely dangerous, heretical Third Waver Todd Bentley.

5) IHOP – like Toronto and Todd Bentley – engages in the extremely dangerous and occultish contemplative practice of soaking prayer. IHOP’s Bob Jones taught Todd Bentley soaking prayer as a method for receiving dreams, visions, trances, angelic visitations, third heaven visitations, and more.  Like I said, extremely dangerous.

… The five items listed above are just the tip of the iceberg – IHOP is teaching  many more heresies.

ARTICLES EXPOSING IHOP’S HERESIES

Following are some articles exposing IHOP, in chronological order. I plan to add more articles as I locate them.

KCF- Kansas City Finances (03/14/08)
IHOP openly promotes contemplative prayer/visualization (08/04/08)
Beware the teachings of IHOP KC – New Age contemplative spirituality (08/10/08)
You just don’t “get it.” (12/14/08)
A Profane Bride?  (02/19/09)
Spiritual Dishonesty (02/20/09)
Mike Bickel, IHOP and Mysticism (11/25/09)(YouTube video)
Kansas City Awakens to Revival at IHOP–RUN FOR YOUR LIVES! (12/18/09)
Mike Bickle – Everybody is called to live in the contemplative lifestyle (12/29/09)
IHOP – Contemplative prayer taught at healing rooms (12/29/09)
IHOP?!? (01/01/10)
Apostolic pirate Brandon Barthrop teaches Jesus was born again (01/10/10)
Mike Bickle and IHOP (01/10/10)
Drunken Streams – Defiled Waters  (01/18/10)
Revisionism and the Blueprint Prophecy (02/18/10)
Bickle and the Man-Child (05/12/10)
Make It Up As You Go! (05/20/10)
Mike Bickle and the Man-Child, Redux (05/31/10)
Your Pastors are Lying (06/03/10)
Red Flags Over IHOP – Devotion or Deception? (02/08/11)
The Mother of All IHOP Casualties (02/14/11)
IHOP – The perils of passion (02/16/11)(describes in detail some of IHOP’s heresies)
IHOP and Prophetic Keys (03/02/11)
Testimony of a Former IHOP-KC Attendee: Stephanie (03/05/11)
IHOP and contemplative prayer (04/11/11)(a shocking testimony from another former IHOP attender)
IHOP enters Dominion/Christian Right Politics (Pt. 1)(07/01/11)
IHOP enters Dominion/Christian Right Politics, Pt. 2 (07/04/11)
There is more to IHOP and Mike Bickle than bad eschatology (07/11/11)
Mike Bickle of IHOP wants book about Catholic mystics to be “manual for IHOP-KC” (07/28/11)
Mike Bickle – Inoculation of the Sheep (08/08/11)
Mike Bickle – Transported to Heaven (09/05/11)
Mike Bickle and IHOP – The Depths of Deception  (09/14/11)
Mike Bickle of IHOP-KC instructs followers on contemplative prayer (10/28/11)

IHOP LOCATIONS

The main IHOP website does not seem to have a directory of churches. (Could it be because IHOP has received so much bad press?) Anyway, following are several “third party” directories of IHOP gatherings? Hopefully your town does NOT have an IHOP group!

24/7 Prayer Ministry Directory (updated regularly)
HousesOfPrayer.net
IHOP Network
Prayer for All People House of Prayer Directory

FOR FURTHER READING

The Dangers of the International House of Prayer (IHOP), by John Park

Click here for the Beyond Grace list of many more articles about IHOP. (I’ve also provided the links below):

Beyond Grace Articles (year only)

Papers and Articles

E-Books – pdfs

Harp and Bowl

Archival Material

Bickle / IHOP Websites

The Joseph Company – at IHOP

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NOTE – The blog below is not my latest blog. To find more recent blogs, browse through the “Archives” section to the lower right.  ——>  ——>  ——>
——————————————————————————————————–
NEWS FLASHClick here to read about Malone University’s Spring 2013 Chapel schedule, showing its increasing emphasis on occultish Spiritual Formation/Contemplative Spirituality.
——————————————————————————————————
(revised 01/04/15)

I gave up on my former denomination (Evangelical Friends Church International aka EFCI) long ago, and in recent years I have encouraged individuals via my blogs to separate from the denomination.

Let me get one thing straight – I don’t  “hate” the Evangelical Friends denomination. On the contrary, I love what the Evangelical Friends once stood for. Specifically, I loved Ohio Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite) up until 1965, with its gospel hymns such as “Power in the Blood” and “There is a Fountain Filled With Blood”, its salvation messages,  and its altar calls. And yes, the OYM (like many denominations then) used the King James Version only. And we had only organs and pianos – no guitars or drums or Contemporary Christian Music. But all that was soon to change. (Some proponents of Bible versions and CCM may have good intentions. Unfortunately, over the years, heretical teachings have become increasingly widespread in many Bible versions and CCM songs.)

But I digress. Back to the Evangelical Friends: I believe that, in 1965, OYM (today the Evangelical Friends Church-Eastern Region or EFC-ER) lost its biblical mooring when it joined with more liberal Evangelical Friends Yearly Meetings to form the Evangelical Friends Alliance (now Evangelical Friends Church International or EFCI). Pre-1965 OYM and today’s EFC-ER are like day and night theologically.  Today I am extremely discontent with the theological positions of EFC-ER and EFCI; I would never consider becoming a member again.

I am not alone in my discontent. Many online discernment ministries (ODMs) have spoken out against EFCI professors and leaders – and Quakers in general – yet have met fierce resistance from supposedly born again EFCI individuals. One discernment leader, James Sundquist (click here and here), wrote this to George Fox University Vice President and Dean Chuck Conniry in 2010 [see entire letter here]:

I can’t see how the Scriptures you quote specifically refute any of my charges or any charges against [GFU adjunct professor] Leonard Sweet by myself, Richard Bennett (Berean Beacon), Ken Silva of Apprising Ministries, Warren Smith, Roger Oakland, Deborah Dombrowski of Lighthouse Trails, or Sandy Simpson of Apologetics Coordination Team.

Additional ODMs which have written about and/or confronted EFCI professors and Quakerism are  David Cloud  and Dr. K.B. Napier. And this is just the tip of the iceberg – many more ODMs have exposed the heresies of contemplative Evangelical Friend Richard Foster specifically.

In recent years many EFCI administrators, professors, pastors and youth leaders have become Emerging/Emergent. They like Emerging/Emergent heretics such as Rob Bell, Ken Blanchard, Bob Buford, Tony Campolo (click here and here), Shane Claiborne, David Crowder, Mark Driscoll, Peter Drucker, Richard Foster, Stanley Grenz, Bill Hybels, Dan Kimball, Tony Jones, Brennan Manning (click here and here), Brian McLaren, Erwin McManus, Donald Miller, Henri Nouwen, John Ortberg, Doug Pagitt, Eugene Peterson, John Piper, Andy Stanley, Ed Stetzer, Leonard Sweet, Frank Viola, Jim Wallis, Rick Warren, Dallas Willard, etc. etc. Because of the EFCI leadership’s continuing support for these Emerging/Emergent heretics, the denomination is probably beyond hope. (Unfortunately, the EFCI is just one of many denominations which are falling away into apostasy. Click here for a directory of many more Wesleyan Holiness denominations which are swallowing the same heresies, hook, line and sinker.)

Note – I would suggest you make a list of all the authors your church leaders quote in sermons, Sunday School classes, etc., then research the authors to see if they are contemplative/Emerging/Emergent.

Consider these excerpts regarding George Fox University and George Fox Evangelical Seminary, reposted here:

March 22nd, 2007 | Author: Lighthouse Trails Editors

The Missional Matrix conference [broken link] is being held this weekend at the Vineyard Community Church in Shoreline Washington. George Fox University (a strong proponent of contemplative spirituality) is sponsoring the event, and speakers include Scot McKnight (author of The Real Mary; see our related article below), and Todd Hunter, North American president of the Alpha Course and a proponent of the Emerging Church…

Unfortunately, contemplative and Emerging Church leaders identify the meaning of these “twists and turns” in a most unscriptural manner. McKnight is a major catalyst for the current sway by evangelicals towards Catholicism while Hunter is a partner with Renovare (Richard Foster’s organization). In addition, George Fox University [as well as George Fox Evangelical Seminary] is a hub of contemplative/emerging activity with a list of adjunct professors [and visiting professors at GFES] that includes Dan Kimball and Leonard Sweet. In 2005, George Fox hired [broken link] Todd Hunter, Leonard Sweet and Brian McLaren to teach certain classes, and chapel speakers at the university have included Richard Foster and Brennan Manning. Recommended and required reading for classes at George Fox include a wide assortment of staunch contemplatives/mystics like Thomas Keating, Henri Nouwen, and Thomas Merton.

I think you get the point…

Moving on, I have written a number of blogs pointing out various heresies invading the EFCI. The readership response has been very encouraging, and positive for the most part.  I praise the Lord for all the Evangelical Friends who are taking an interest in these blogs.

Regarding specific heresies in the EFCI (in addition to Emerging/Emergent teachings), check out this excerpt from one of my other major blogs:

Some in the EFCI (Evangelical Friends Church International) have suggested I be more “positive” in my denominational blogs.  Currently I don’t have very much positive to say about the EFCI, due to the involvement of most of its Regions in the following heresies. These are in roughly chronological order; dates are approximate:

1) Failure to confront and condemn Quaker Universalism (aka George Fox’s Inward Light/Inner Light teaching) in non-evangelical Quaker denominations (1948 on)
2) New Evangelicalism (1948 on)
3) Quaker ecumenism (1970 on)
4) Spiritual Formation (1978 on)
5) Emerging/Emergent/Emergence teachings (1995 on)
6) Postmillenial Emerging/Emergent/Kingdom Now eschatology (1995 on)
7) The Convergent Friends movement (1995 on)
8 ) Accommodation of an IHOP college group (2008 on)

In the EFC-ER’s favor, it seems the EFC-ER is still the most biblically sound of the EFCI Regions in North America. Click here for a history of Ohio Yearly Meeting (OYM, later renamed EFC-ER) during the “biblically sound” years of 1854-1965. I thank the Lord I was in OYM during part of this godly time period.

Yes, you heard me right: the EFC-ER is still the most biblically sound of the EFCI Regions in North America. Unfortunately, certain individuals in the EFC-ER are allowing the above mentioned heretical teachings to come in to the EFC-ER –  many via professors and pastors “transferring in” from other denominations (“non-evangelical Quakers” and non-Quaker Emerging/ Emergent evangelical denominations such as the Nazarenes), as well as the other more liberal Emerging/Emergent Regions of the EFCI.

To make matters worse, some of the leaders of the EFC-ER are also leaders of the EFCI. And they have let the “tail wag the dog,” so to speak. Since various Evangelical Friends yearly meetings merged in 1965 into the Evangelical Friends Alliance (now the EFCI), the “progressive evangelical” NWYM (Northwest Yearly Meeting), particularly, has increasingly held sway over the theological positions of the EFCI. To put it another way: the physical headquarters of the EFCI is in the EFC-ER; the theological/ideological headquarters of the EFCI is in NWYM. And the leadership of the EFCI has gone along with the NWYM leadership – in a big way. Unfortunately, many members of the EFC-ER are not aware of this ungodly accommodation of the NWYM (as well as the other increasingly “progressive evangelical”  Regions) by the EFCI leadership. (Click here for links to all the Regions of the EFCI.)

I’m trying to “be nice” here, not mentioning names of individuals (particularly individuals I have not yet spoken with or corresponded with). But I feel compelled to speak out against false doctrine. This is what God’s Word commands us to do.

An official high in the EFCI was kind enough to respond to my concerns somewhat (see the comments at the bottom of this blog). But after several messages back and forth, this official declined to correspond any further, stating that I am “being divisive.”

At first I took umbrage at being referred to divisive. Like many loved ones before me who were born again, biblically sound Evangelical Friends pastors and missionaries, I believe strongly in the born again, biblically sound salvation message preached by Evangelical Friends – including J. Walter Malone – between approx. 1854-1965. I would label myself a “separatist fundamentalist Gurneyite Quaker/Evangelical Friend.” Separatist fundamentalism is  the traditional view  of the Evangelical Friends. If I defend this traditional standard of the Evangelical Friends – and am called “divisive” for my stand – something is seriously wrong with the current theological state of the EFCI.

To summarize, yes, I am being “divisive” – in a sense. I am being divisive towards the heretics who have invaded the EFCI. These heretics  themselves are being divisive to the born again Body of Christ. They are hijacking the biblically sound doctrinal stance of the EFCI.

Speaking of “hijacking” the EFCI: I would say the most infamous heretic in the EFCI has been Spiritual Formation’s Richard Foster, who grew up in the EFA/EFCI. Throughout Foster’s life, the EFCI has always welcomed him with open arms. God help the EFCI. If the EFCI had cut off Foster at the outset and condemned his teachings, perhaps we would not see the theological devastation and apostasy of occultish contemplative spirituality across evangelicalism today.

Regarding the gospel message – traditionally the core of the term “evangelicalism” – we are losing the born again message of  salvation through Jesus Christ. We all need to wake up before it’s too late. When is the last time you heard the “negative” aspects of the  salvation message in an EFCI school or church? Namely:

1) “Hellfire and brimstone” preaching of God’s damnation to Hell of those who reject Christ: 18b) … he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.  19) And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. (John 3:18b-19, KJV). Also, 12a) And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life… 15) And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.  (Rev. 20:12a,15, KJV).

2)  The bloody sacrifice of our Lord Jesus Christ on the cross of Calvary, our Atonement, providing eternal life to all those who turn from sin and accept Him as their Saviour. Think of Christ’s bloody, gory suffering – this is the brutality our Saviour bore for us:  4) Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.  5) But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. 6) All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.  7) He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth. (Isa. 53:4-7, KJV).

The last time I personally remember hearing a hymn about the Blood in the EFC-ER, was when Earl Smith led the song “Power in the Blood” at Yearly Meeting in the early 1970s. Folks, that’s forty years ago – sad!

Listen to the following song, entitled “Nothing But the Blood (Still Saves the Lost)”. describes how the message of the Blood and the Cross has virtually disappeared from many evangelical churches in recent decades. If you feel uncomfortable hearing this song, you need to get right with God! The message of the Blood and the Cross is what Christianity is all about. It is an abomination when churches omit this message – or water it down – to avoid turning off seekers (unsaved attenders). Here’s the song:

Regarding the EFC-ER today,  I do have some words of encouragement.  I believe there is still hope theologically for individuals throughout the EFC-ER – even if the EFC-ER leaders (administrators, professors, pastors and youth leaders) will not listen. I believe there is hope for individuals here and there in the other Regions of the EFCI as well – although change may be more difficult. Some of the most encouraging and influential supporters of this blogsite are from EFCI Regions outside the EFC-ER.

As I continue to see and hear of heresies invading  the EFC-ER, I will be blogging about individual “invaders”/”hijackers” in Malone University and in specific churches. I am still trying to avoid criticizing EFC-ER members by name at this point. My main objective is not to attack or hurt anyone, but to help attenders of Malone University and various EFC-ER churches to:

1) See the invading heresies,

2) Join with myself and other concerned Evangelical Friends in protesting loudly, and

3) If nothing changes, leave for biblically sound churches. Currently I recommend three groups/denominations:

#1) Certain kinds of Independent Fundamentalist Baptist (IFB) churches – see this Ohio Baptist directory adapted from David Cloud. (Note especially the churches with three asterisks; these are the churches where Bro. Cloud has spoken, and which he recommends personally. And here are the traits Bro.  Cloud looks for, in placing Baptist churches in his directory. I realize that, doctrinally, IFB churches are somewhat different from the Wesleyan Holiness heritage of the Evangelical Friends. Yet, of all denominations and independent churches in America today, I believe these Independent Fundamentalist Baptist churches are closest in faith and practice to the Evangelical Friends churches of approx. 1900-1950.

#2) Conservative Holiness churches – see this Wikipedia article as well as this blog.

#3) Free Will Baptist churches – see this blog.

Each of the above three groups has their own distinctive teachings, as well as pros and cons. No matter which group(s) you decide to check out, make sure the churches you are visiting still use the KJV (aka Authorized Version) only. Almost inevitably, churches that sympathize with other per-versions end up falling prey to false teachings/heresies.

Following are the websites of Malone University and the EFC-ER churches, so you can see for yourself what’s going on. I am considering writing critiques of Malone and various churches; these critiques will include discussions of  “problem areas” (aka heresies).  I’m sure there are some in the EFCI who will view these critiques as divisive – but in these End Times I believe we need to wake up, and wake up fast. Evangelical denominations including the EFCI are literally being torn apart by Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings (among other heresies).

I know a number of you at “problem churches” (churches accommodating heresies) in the EFC-ER have already spoken up and/or left for biblically sound churches. I believe the Lord is pleased with your actions. For those of you who currently need help battling the invasion of heresies in Malone University or EFC-ER churches, please contact us. (You can reach us via the Comment box at the bottom of this blog; comments will be kept private unless you wish them to be published). We’re here to help. And together – with God’s help – I believe we can make a difference for eternity.

Just a word about exposing and confronting false teachers. In the past, if I were upset with a pastor’s doctrinal errors, I would simply leave the church and attend elsewhere. After all, I figured, the pastor was still a “man of God” and should not be “attacked”, right? Since then I have changed my position on this. If a pastor is teaching serious error, his other followers need to be made aware of this. (The trick is how to do this in a “loving” way.) If a pastor or church leader does not expose the false teachings of another pastor or church leader, he himself becomes a false teacher. Click here for a blog explaining my position in more detail.

Now on to the EFC-ER directory (click here to access the original listing, under EFC-ER’s “Directory” menu item). To show a church’s size, I’ve added the average Sunday morning attendance between January 1, 2009-December 31, 2009 (source: 2010 Yearbook – EFC-ER).

Church size is important. It seems almost a rule of thumb that large evangelical churches (say 500+ attenders) become spiritual “conduits” for bringing in heretical teachings. For example, currently I am closely following a number of large EFC-ER churches in addition to Malone University. These large churches are doing most if not all of the following:

– Using the church growth principles found in Dan Kimball’s Emerging/ Emergent book The Emerging Church
– Pushing “new ways of doing church”
– Promoting “missional” outreach (the “social gospel” repackaged)
– Using Eugene Peterson’s heretical The Message paraphrase in sermons and bulletins
– Downplaying or eliminating senior programs and traditional services in favor of  blended services and contemporary services
– Replacing pianos and organs with full bands (complete with full drum sets behind glass panes)
– Providing coffee bars and sofas in their lobbies
– Building new “campuses” that resemble schools not churches, with movable chairs in their gymnasium-like “sanctuaries”
– And so on…

Notice a common theme? While making church more appealing to “seekers”/ newcomers, all these changes have reduced our reverence for the Lord, our “holiness unto the Lord.”

Also, all these postmodern practices are encouraged by heretical Emerging/ Emergents. And there are many more red flags to watch for. Click here to see many more traits of an Emerging church – how many of these traits are present in your EFC-ER church?

On a more personal note: in discussing the EFC-ER, I have mixed feelings. I feel very close to many individuals in many churches – I feel rather guilty for seemingly “attacking” the EFC-ER. On the other hand, I  believe the EFC-ER’s “theological situation” needs to be watched very closely. We need more “watchmen on the wall” to stand up against incoming heresies.  Satan knows his time is short before Christ’s return – Satan and his minions are doing everything they can to destroy the Body of Christ.

EFC-ER DIRECTORY of individuals, Malone University and churches

I’m providing this info here – including website links Facebook links – not to attack individuals, but for readers to question them directly regarding their doctrinal positions, and the doctrinal positions of the EFC-ER and EFCI. Some individuals are biblically sound, while others are questionable. I will not single out heretical individuals at this point – readers can correspond, ask, discuss, and conclude for themselves which individuals are spreading the heresies I listed at the beginning of this blog.

Be discerning and be persistent in your questions. Some individuals (particularly the elderly) may sincerely be unaware of Emerging/Emergent heresies invading the EFCI (for example Richard Foster, Dan Kimball, Brian McLaren, Leonard Sweet, etc. teaching at George Fox University and Seminary). Other individuals may be aware of at least some of the  heresies invading the denomination; they may be very helpful and give you the straight scoop on the heresies they’re aware of. On the other hand, those who support these heresies may deny their approval/involvement, skirt the subject, or say things like “Dave Mosher and those old fundamentalist Gurneyite Friends are being divisive – they don’t really know what they’re talking about.”

Yes, we are being divisive! We are concerned about all the heresies I mentioned near the beginning of this blog, that are invading the EFC-ER and the EFCI. And we care more about the true Body of Christ and the eternal salvation of souls, than about an ecumenical quasi-unity with nonevangelical (nonchristian) Quaker denominations and groups (the Convergent Friends movement).

Now on to my EFC-ER directory:

EFC-ER ADMINISTRATION (as of 2012)

EFC-ER World Outreach Center (click here for the EFC-ER website)

Dr. John P. Williams Jr. (EFC-ER General Superintendent, head of EFCI)
EFC-ER bio

Ken Albright (EFC-ER Southern Area Superintendent) –EFC-ER bio

Quint Bryan (Youth Leadership Resources for EFC-ER, pastor of Sebring Evangelical FC) – Facebook status page

Dr. Wayne Evans (EFC-ER Florida & Western Area Superintendent, EFCI Treasurer) – EFC-ER bio
Facebook status page

Chris Jackson (EFC-ER Eastern Area Superintendent) EFC-ER bio
Facebook status page

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (as of 2012)

Malone University 

Administration

Dr. David A. King,  University President –  Dr. King is also on the Board of Trustees; this blog contains several links to info about Dr. King

Donald L. Tucker, Provost (see this article describing the duties of a provost)

Board of Trustees
(I am trying to list only individuals closely associated with the Evangelical Friends as of November 2012; many trustees are people in the community who have no real input regarding the religious aspects of Malone)

Stan Anderson, M.D.

Mark B. Benedict, Attorney

H. David Brandt, Ph.D.
President Emeritus, George Fox University, Newberg, Ore.

Daniel D. Cale, Pastor, Hughesville Friends Church, Hughesville, Pa.

Thomas Crawford, D. Min.
Pastor, Morningside Friends Church, Port St. Lucie, Fla.

Shu-Ling Sharon Kao-Huang
Evangelical Friends Church Minister, Elementary School Educator, Kent

Rhonda J. Mitchell, N.D.

David P. Murray, J.D., Attorney

David R. Van Valkenburg
Chairman, Balfour Associates, Inc.

Stephen T. Weingart
Manager, FedEx Custom Critical, Canton

Dr. John P. Williams Jr. (EFC-ER General Superintendent, head of EFCI)
EFC-ER bio

Office of Spiritual Formation

Randy Heckert, University Chaplain

Linda Leon, Director of Spiritual Formation

Theology Dept.

Larry D. Reinhart, Dept. Chair
Facebook status page

Bryan C. Hollon
Facebook status page

Greg Linville

Stephen K. Moroney

Suzanne Nicholson

D. Nathan Phinney

William P. Quigley (Instructor of Youth Ministries)

Joel Soza
Facebook status page

Duane F. Watson

History Dept.

Jacalynn Stuckey Welling (teaches Quaker history, etc.)

Former professors

John David Geib

John Oliver

Alumni

Paul Anderson

C. Wess Daniels

Joel Daniel Harris

David Johns

David Williams
Bio (PDF document)

EVANGELICAL FRIENDS PASTORS FORMERLY IN EFC-ER

Adrian Halverstadt

Joe Roher (Pastor Joe is now a Spiritual Director, and Pastor Emeritus of Friendswood, TX Friends Church)

EFC-ER CHURCHES AND PASTORS
I am mainly including links to pastors and youth leaders, as I find them. Note 01/4/15: Numbers in parentheses are number of attenders as of 2012. Also note: many pastors and youth leaders have relocated since 2012. For the most recent directory info go to http://www.efcer.org

Central Ohio District

Alum Creek FC (97)(church link on EFC-ER website does not work as of 02/09/12)
– Greg Rice (senior pastor) – Facebook status page
Columbus-Friends Worship Center (79)
Gilead FC (441)[church link on EFC-ER website does not work as of 02/09/12]
Brian Mosher (Senior Pastor)
Mansfield First FC (33)[church link on EFC-ER website does not work as of 02/09/12]
Orange FC (101)
– David Mabry (lead pastor) – Facebook status page
Valleyview Evangelical FC (73)
Water of Life Evangelical FC (44)
Facebook Page

Eastern Ohio District

East Richland Evangelical FC (834)
website (this link is more recent than the non-working link on the EFC-ER website)
Jerry Wenger (Senior Pastor)
Wayne Ickes (Pastor Emeritus)
Jamie & Erin Roten (Youth Pastor & Female Youth Director)
Kara Wenger (Director of College Age Ministries)
———————————————————————————————–
Mount Pleasant FC (134)
Smithfield Evangelical FC (33)
Springdale FC (31)

Northeastern Ohio District

Akron Community FC (23)
———————————————————————————————–
Alliance First FC (416)
church Facebook Page
Frederick O. “Rick” Sams (pastor) – Facebook status page
Debbie Noble (youth pastor)
————————————————————————————————
Beloit FC (70)
Brewster Evangelical FC (46)
– Vance Z. Weeks (pastor) – Facebook status page
——————————————————————————————-
Canton First FC (1259)
Stan Hinshaw (Lead Pastor) – Facebook status page
Joel Daniel Harris (Middle School Youth Pastor)
Chris King (High School Ministry Pastor) – Facebook status page
Ben Walters (Director of Young Adult Ministries and Discipleship)
– Marva Lee Hoopes, Pastor of Children’s Ministry – Facebook status page
———————————————————————————————–
Damascus FC (736)
John P. Ryser (Pastor)
Steve Lowe (Associate Pastor)
Alex Feldman (Youth Pastor)
———————————————————————————————–
Deerfield Evangelical FC (135)
East Goshen FC (82)
———————————————————————————————-
Jackson FC (934)
David Tebbs (Pastor)
Zack Rambaud (Associate Pastor/Youth Pastor)
Scott “Moby” Dick (Director of Sports and Recreation/Director of Middle School Youth)
Jeff Gilliland (Senior High School Intern)(as of Jan. 2012)
Bob Robinson (Director of Young Adults)
———————————————————————————————–
Lisbon-Trinity FC (143)
Poland-Bethel Evangelical FC (174)
———————————————————————————————–
Salem First FC (432)
Facebook Page
John Pierce (Senior Pastor)
Pete Fowler (Associate Pastor) – Facebook status page
Mike Barnes (Youth Ministry Intern)(as of Feb. 2012)
————————————————————————————————
Salem-Southeast FC (73)
Sebring Evangelical FC (86)
– Quint Bryan (pastor, also holds Youth Leadership Resources administrative position in EFC-ER) – Facebook status page
Winona Evangelical FC (254)

(listed in 2010 EFC-ER Yearbook only, not on EFC-ER website):
Kent Chinese (35)

Northern Ohio District

Barberton Evangelical FC (82)
Boston Heights and Taiwanese FC (47)
Broadview Heights Evangelical FC (204)
Cleveland-Community FC (17)
Cleveland-West Park Evangelical FC (41)
Cornerstone Evangelical FC (433)
– Mark Winner (senior pastor) – Facebook status page
Morningstar FC (313
North Olmsted Evangelical FC (562)
Pelham Evangelical FC (90)
Wadsworth-Bethany FC (61)
Willoughby Hills Evangelical FC (1064)
– Kevin Young (senior pastor) – Facebook status page

(listed in 2010 EFC-ER Yearbook only, not on EFC-ER website):
Toronto Hispanic (45)

Western Ohio District

Bellefontaine First FC (51)
Byhalia FC (43)
Fulton Creek Evangelical FC (115)
Goshen FC (198)
Mount Carmel FC (106)
Shiloh Chapel – Evangelical FC (240)
– Andy Albertini (senior pastor) – Facebook status page
Somersville FC (16)
Urbana Evangelical FC (59)
Van Wert – Trinity FC (419)
West Mansfield FC (7)

Colonial District

Evangelical Friends – Newport (252)
Hughesville Evangelical FC (292)
– Dan Cale (senior pastor) – Facebook status page
Portsmouth FC (44)

(listed in 2010 EFC-ER Yearbook only, not on EFC-ER website):
Baltimore Hispanic (125)
Kingston Hispanic (140)
Philadelphia Hispanic (120)
Philadelphia West Hispanic (90)

Florida District

Morningside FC (1654)

(listed in 2010 EFC-ER Yearbook only, not on EFC-ER website):
Brooklyn Haitian (100)
Miami Haitian (280)
Tabernacle Haitian (55)
Union Haitian (48)

Michigan District

Battle Creek Evangelical FC (393)
– John Grafton (Youth and Outreach Pastor, Worship Leader) – Facebook status page
Lupton FC (77)
Raisin Center FC (60)
Raisin Valley FC (83)
Riverbend FC (86)
Rollin FC (51)
Ypsilanti Evangelical FC (89)

(listed in 2010 EFC-ER Yearbook only, not on EFC-ER website):
Chicago Hispanic (55)

Piedmont District

Cornerstone Community Church (110)
Danville – Ferry Road Evangelical FC (49)
Danville – Longview Evangelical FC (52)
Eden – Immanuel FC (90)
Greensboro – Hunter Hills FC (50)
Martinsville – Trinity FC (55)
New Life Community
(147)
Pine Mountain FC (22)
Pleasant View Evangelical FC (39)
Putnam Evangelical FC (48)
Rock Hill Evangelical FC (60)

(listed in 2010 EFC-ER Yearbook only, not on EFC-ER website):
Iglesia de Jesuchristo Rocka Viva – Greensboro (75)
Iglesia de Jesuchristo Rocka Viva – Raleigh (40)

Virginia District

Achilles FC (27)
Colony FC  (53) (Newport Colony FC)
Hampton – First FC (149)
Hanover Evangelical FC (196) (Richmond Hanover Evangelical FC)
Living Hope Evangelical FC (33)
New Point FC
(22)
Peniel Evangelical FC (18)
Portsmouth – First FC (49)
Rescue Evangelical FC (23)
Facebook Page
Virginia Beach – Providence FC (89)

Read Full Post »

(revised 05/12/14)

Some members of the Evangelical Friends Church International (EFCI) have felt that my agenda for this blogsite is to create division in the EFCI. I did in fact state the following in a previous blog:

It is my prayer for the EFC-ER to separate itself from the EFC-NA, returning to the state it was prior to 1965 and the formation of the EFA [Evangelical Friends Alliance], as a separate entity.

Here is my reason for saying the above: prior to 1965, the EFC-ER (formerly called the Ohio Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite) was the only Friends/Quaker Yearly Meeting in the United States that – in my opinion – still held strongly to the biblically sound beliefs of Wesleyan Holiness Friends/Gurneyite Friends. I believe that, if it had remained its own entity, there would have been a chance for Ohio Yearly Meeting to hold on to their unique beliefs and keep them from being lost. Here is the key: to me, this separation would have included keeping out all traces of Spiritual Formation and postmodern (Emerging/Emergent/Emergence) teachings.

Now, over 45 years later, the EFC-ER shows no signs of separating from the EFCI. Nor does it appear that Spiritual Formation and postmodern teachings will disappear from the EFC-ER. How tragic!

Bottom line – I’m just trying to blog my feelings, some way, somehow, that in my mind the “pure” faith and practices of of Holiness Friends/Gurneyite Friends have died out. Or, that they are very close to dying out, as “the older generation” passes on. And as earnestly and as passionately as I can say this, I truly mourn this passing.

In his memoir, Sixty Years of Gospel Ministry, Edward Mott decades ago stated, “The attempt to fellowship and work with unbelievers [non-evangelical Quaker denominations] spells death. Any conclusion to the contrary is ruinous to all concerned.” Although Mott was referring to non-evangelical Quaker denominations, today there are many Evangelical Friends in yearly meetings/regions other than the EFC-ER whom I believe are, in reality, unbelievers.

As I have stated elsewhere, I am not the only Wesleyan Holiness Friend/Gurneyite Friend that has felt this way. I believe there is a great cloud of witnesses, including many of my deceased Friends pastor relatives and missionary relatives, who would have agreed with me that the Ohio Yearly Meeting in essence “died” when it joined the EFA in 1965, then opened the door to Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings. [Perhaps I should cut people some slack here. It is very possible that Ohio Yearly Meeting still would have become involved in Spiritual Formation and Emerging/Emergent teachings, even if it had not joined the EFA in 1965.]

As I look back on the recent passing of my father, a wonderful Holiness Friends/Gurneyite Friends pastor, I can’t help but think of what we have lost since 1965. Wonderful church services, the King James Version (call me old fashioned), those wonderful old gospel hymns and  choruses, testimony time, frequent salvation messages with altar calls, Sunday evening services, Wednesday night prayer meetings – all those wonderful “old fashioned” things. (I thank the Lord there are many churches – albeit outside of Quakerism – that have managed to hang on to all these church practices. These are primarily Independent Fundamentalist Baptist churches.)

I have been hoping – perhaps hoping beyond hope – that Evangelical Friends would be able to converse. That Evangelical Friends would be able to follow the Quaker tradition of being a people of truth. That we would be able to openly dialogue and/or debate about these issues. I have had Evangelical Friends contact me in private, stating their disappointment and frustration that they have not been able to present their concerns openly on these very issues. Some have been afraid of offending other Evangelical Friends.  Others have been afraid of reprisal or ostracism. When did the EFCI reach this state? Why can’t the EFCI just be open and honest, telling EFC-ER members clearly how Emerging/Emergent the denomination is becoming?

And so I have created this blogsite. If it creates strife, so be it – EFC-ER members need to know what changes are transpiring in the EFCI. (I’m used to strife over theological issues – anyone who has attended seminary will know what I mean, LOL.)

Now for the good news – if any is to been seen in such a mournful situation (or angering situation, depending on which side of the fence you stand concerning my blogsite). Blogging is certainly not the most diplomatic way to get a conversation going, but a conversation has begun nonetheless. So far the conversation has been very encouraging. I’ve received more compliments than complaints from readers. A number of readers have thanked me for my research, and for opening their eyes to what is going on in the EFCI and EFC-ER.

To locate my other blogs on this denomination, simply search on my blogsite for Quakers, Friends, EFCI, EFC-ER, etc.

Read Full Post »

[blog under construction – I have written a number of related blogs which I will be linking to this blog]

George Fox’s Universalist “Inner Light” teaching has had a deadly effect on Evangelicalism over the years. Two of the most recent big names who seem to have no problem with George Fox’s teaching on this are Richard Foster and Dallas Willard. Foster and Willard both played a huge part in popularizing Spiritual Formation, with its occultish spiritual discipline of contemplative prayer/contemplative spirituality. Interestingly, Foster and Willard co-pastored an Evangelical Friends church, and Foster actually grew up in the Evangelical Friends. Yet Foster and Willard both seem as equally comfortable with non-evangelical universalist Quakers.

I came across the following article, written by Quaker univeralist Samuel J. Chadwick. In the article, he makes a case for uniting Universalism with evangelical Christianity via George Fox’s universalist Inner Light/Inward Light teaching. I do not approve of this article. I am merely providing this article in its entirety to show how destructive George Fox’s Inner Light/Inward Light teaching has been to Evangelicalism. I have emphasized certain points by bolding, and inserted comments in [bracketing].

The entire article is also found here.

The Inward Light: How Quakerism Unites Universalism and Christianity, by Samuel D. Caldwell

We are all well aware of the long-standing tension in the Religious Society of Friends between Christianity and Universalism. Each pole of this historic tension has had its partisans over time. The Quaker Universalist Fellowship represents one pole of the contemporary debate. Evangelical Friends International [renamed Evangelical Friends Church International] is an example of a group that represents the other. Each side of the debate claims that its own view of Quakerism is the true one, and each side feels that the other side’s position is a negation of its own. Typically, the debate is cast in logically exclusivist terms: if one position is true, then the other must of necessity be false; both cannot possibly be true at the same time.

For my part, I have never accepted the terms in which the debate has been cast. It is my own view that Quakerism is neither exclusively Christian, as some Quaker Christians would have it; nor is it exclusively Universalist, as some Quaker Universalists would have it. The fact is Quakerism has always been a powerful amalgamation of both. My thesis is that not only is it possible to be both Christian and Universalist at the same time, but it has always been the very essence and peculiar genius of Quakerism to join the two in holy matrimony! I wish to explain how this is so.

Let me start with the Universalist side of the equation. What many Christian Quakers fail to understand or accept about the Quaker approach to Christianity is that it is Universalist to the core. Universalism is thoroughly embedded in the Quaker perspective precisely because it is intrinsic to our most central and distinctive religious insight: the principle of the Inner Light.

It is helpful to remind ourselves of the essential core of this important insight. Historically, it is this: God gives to every human being who comes into the world a measure of the divine spirit as a Living Witness and a Light to be inwardly guided by. Those who learn to heed the promptings of this Light within them come to be “saved” – that is, they come into fullness and wholeness of life and right relationship with God, themselves, and one another.

Those who resist, ignore, or otherwise deny the workings of this pure spirit within them, though they make a profession of faith, are “condemned” – that is, they become alienated from God, from themselves, and from one another. The chief end of religious life, therefore, is to hearken to and act in accordance with the promptings of the Inner Light in one’s life.  This description closely parallels George Fox’s original “opening” concerning the Light in 1648, as recorded in his Journal (Nickalls edition, p. 33).

A number of important characteristics of the Light can be readily inferred from this description. First, this Light is “divine” or “supernatural.” That is, it pertains to God and God’s activity. Numerous Friends, among them George Fox and Robert Barclay, have been urgent in cautioning us against confusing the Inner Light with such natural phenomena as reason or conscience, both of which are physically and socially conditioned. Rather, they have emphasized that the Light is God’s eternal and indwelling power resident within our mortal frames, there to enlighten and inform the natural reason and conscience with truth of a higher order.

This Light is personal. It is no mindless, purposeless, undifferentiated force or power. It is the mind and will of God – the God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Sarah – who indwells our souls. To claim, as we do, that we are led or taught by the Light is to accept by inference that the power by which we are led or taught is capable of actively leading or teaching us. This requires a personal or theistic conception of the Spirit, which Friends have traditionally held.

This Light is saving. It is the instrument or means by which we are drawn into fullness and wholeness of life and right relationship to God, ourselves, and one another. It is not primarily through the mechanism of assent to certain theological propositions, however heartfelt, nor by participation in certain established rituals, however sincere, that one comes to be “saved” in Quaker faith and practice; it is chiefly through the operation of this Saving Light in human hearts – in the hearing and doing of the Living Word as inwardly revealed in the course of common life.

This Light is eternal. It was before time, is now, and will be forevermore. As the writer of John says, “in the beginning was the Word.” Friends have always identified the Inner Light with this “logos” or Eternal Word [Evangelical Friends however, say, as the book of John says, that this Logos is Jesus Christ the Son of God, not the Inner Light]. It is by this Eternal Light and Word that all of the saints and sages down through the ages have known and spoken the Truth. It is by this Light that the Holy Scriptures of the ages have been written (and must be read). It is by this Light that whatever is true, good, and beautiful has been brought forth in human community over time. This Light is and has always been the source and fountain of all human creativity.

This Light is resistible. It is not an inevitable force or automatic power; it can be resisted, ignored, or otherwise denied in the human heart. To quote C. S. Lewis, “God does not ravish; He only woos.” Although we receive this Light freely and from birth, we are free to choose whether or not and how to respond to its promptings. As someone once remarked, “We are predestinated and foreordained to decide for ourselves!”

This Light is persistent. The Light never ceases to make its Living Witness within each and every human heart, even when it is resisted. Although stubborn resistance and persistent disobedience may greatly dim its luminosity, the Light can never be fully extinguished within us. This is the unfailing love and mercy of God which passes all understanding.

This Light is pure. It is utterly infallible and perfectly good. Although we may err in our discernment of the Light’s witness within us, for any and all who turn to it in humility of heart, the Light is an inerrant guide to truth and wisdom. And, because it is the pure love of God within us, this Light is completely good and trustworthy.

This Light is ineffable. It defies complete and accurate description. Like much in the realm of spirit, the Light cannot be completely understood, but it can be experienced and known.

Lastly, and perhaps most important to the present discussion, this Light is unequivocally universal. It is freely given by God to each and every human being who comes into the world, regardless of race, sex, nationality, philosophical orientation, religious creed, or station in life. It is the divine birthright and inheritance of all, not the privileged possession of a few. To paraphrase the scripture, it is the Good News of God “preached to every creature under heaven” (Colossians 1:23).

Now it can readily be seen from these characteristics that the Quaker concept of the Inner Light is radically universalist in its thrust. As such, it offers a strong challenge to many of the exclusivist assumptions of conventional Christian faith. Here is where the tension between Christianity and Universalism in Quakerism begins to be felt.

It is hard to overstate, for instance, how radically different the Quaker view of salvation is from the popular Christian conception. According to our understanding of the Inner Light, any person of whatever religious persuasion, who turns in sincerity of heart to the Divine Light within, and lives in accordance with its promptings, will be saved. All of God’s children, Christians and non-Christians alike, have equal access to salvation through the Light.

This view constitutes an outright denial of the exclusivist Christian assumption that salvation comes only to those who confess Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior and participate in certain established rituals of the Church. One need not be a professing Christian, in other words, to be saved; and many who are professing Christians are (apparently) not saved.

Similarly, Quaker Universalism challenges the now-prevalent evangelical Christian view that the Holy Spirit “comes into one’s heart,” presumably from outside, at the moment of conversion. Friends have testified throughout their history that this Holy Spirit is already resident as a Divine Seed in every human heart, waiting to be decisively accepted and nurtured through attentive obedience in daily life. This difference in viewpoint explains the real distinction between Quaker “convincement” and evangelical “conversion. ”

[Evangelical Friends Church International (EFCI) today tends to explain away this Inner Light as being the Holy Spirit.  This is in direct contradiction to a statement made in 1877-1879 by one of its own regions, the Ohio Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite) – now the EFC-ER. The Ohio Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite) was the only Quaker yearly meeting ever to condemn George Fox’s Inner Light teaching. Also, the EFCI’s definition of the Inner Light as the Holy Spirit flies in the face of the previous paragraph, which explains clearly that the Inner Light is vastly different from the Christian doctrine of the Holy Spirit.]

Salvation and conversion are not the only fronts on which Quaker Universalism challenges conventional Christianity. From the beginning, for instance, Friends have vociferously challenged the fundamentalist Christian assumption that the Bible is the Word of God, insisting instead that the Holy Spirit, the Christ Within, is the Word of God. The Bible is a declaration of the fountain; it is not the fountain itself The fountain is Christ, the Living Word. George Fox argued disarmingly that, if the Bible were really the Word of God, then one could buy and sell the Word of God and carry it around in one’s pocket!

In a similar vein, the Quaker doctrine of “continuing revelation,” which says that God continues to reveal Truth to those who have ears to hear, directly challenges the fundamentalist Christian belief that God’s revelation was completed when the books of the biblical canon were finalized by the Church.

Quaker Universalism also challenges the conventional Christian definition of the Church, insisting that the Church is not a building. Nor is it an identifiable group of confessing Christians. It is, rather, the universal fellowship of all those persons, of whatever background or persuasion, who know and live in accordance with the Living Witness of God’s Light within them. Unlike the standard Christian definition, the Quaker definition of the Church embraces non-Christians, and even theoretically excludes professing Christians who have no real inward, life-changing experience of God. [Now this is a contradiction if every I’ve seen one. How can any non-Christian ever have a “real inward, life-changing experience of God”?]

These few examples should make it clear how deeply-rooted and fundamental the Universalist perspective is in Quakerism, and how profoundly, in turn, this perspective affects the Quaker approach to Christianity – so much so that Quakerism takes a strongly prophetic stance over and against a number of widely accepted interpretations of Christian faith.

It should also be clear, however, that Quaker Universalism, as we have described it here, has little or nothing to do with that brand of eclectic, humanist philosophy called “universalism” that is so prevalent in liberal Quaker circles today. This sort of pseudo-universalism – “pseudo” because it bears a superficial resemblance to Quaker Universalism, but is really contrary to it in a number of crucial ways – poses such an insidious threat to the true Quaker view that I would like to spend a few moments describing in more detail how the two are different.

[I must admit, in the following paragraphs, the author does a good job of condemning “pseudo-universalism” – what I would call Unitarian Universalism.]

While Quaker Universalism is strongly religious in content and devotional in orientation, pseudo-universalism typically maintains a pronounced philosophical detachment from all religious traditions (especially, as we shall see, from Christianity). Unlike Quaker Universalism, which calls for a faith commitment to a specific religious path, pseudo-universalism teaches non-adherence to any particular religion at all, referring a kind of smorgasbord approach to religious ideas instead.

Quaker Universalism acknowledges the differences between the major religions of the world, but calls them all to the same universal standard of Truth: the Living Witness of God within. Pseudo-universalism often ignores, trivializes and obfuscates the real differences between world religions, claiming that “all religions are essentially the same.” In effect, it denies all religions by affirming all equally and embracing none.

While Quaker Universalism is a specific religious path that leads the seeker toward transformation and salvation, pseudo-universalism institutionalizes seeking and is highly suspicious of finding in religious life. Partly because it considers the major religions of the world to be primitive (and therefore false?), and partly because it is highly intellectual in orientation, pseudo-universalism discourages the sort of existential faith commitment that is essential for real spiritual growth and transformation. It offers no genuine spiritual path of its own, while discouraging its adherents from embarking on any established path.

Because it is a view of religion and not a religion itself, and because it accepts no particular religious tradition as normative, pseudo-universalism has within it no principle whereby it can discriminate between what is true and what is false in any particular religious view. To what standard, for instance, would pseudo-universalism appeal regarding a membership application from an avowed practitioner of the religion of Satanism? Quaker Universalism, on the other hand, is founded on the premise that there is one true principle of discernment, and that is the Inner Light. In addition, as we shall see momentarily, although Quaker Universalism radically challenges Christianity at many points, it also has historically accepted Jesus Christ and the gospel tradition as normative for faithful living. [Yes and no. Quaker Univeralists profess Jesus as “Teacher and Lord,” but not as “Lord and Saviour.” In another blog, I quoted a liberal Friends General Conference fellow who sang, “I’m not a Christian but I’m a Quaker, I’ve got Christ’s Inner Light but he’s not my Saviour.” What an abomination.]

Lastly, while Quaker Universalism is firmly rooted in the Christian tradition (albeit not always comfortable with it), pseudo-universalism often acts as a smoke screen for anti-Christian sentiment. In my conversations with Friends who have been influenced by this kind of universalism, I frequently encounter significant discomfort with, if not open hostility to, Christians and the Christian faith. This, of course, is in direct contradiction to their own professed principles. To this sort of universalist, it seems, all religions are equal except Christianity!

Perhaps you have heard of H. L. Mencken’s famous definition of a “puritan” as someone who is obsessed with the fear that somehow, somewhere, someone is having fun? The pseudo-universalist is one who is obsessed with the fear that somehow, somewhere, someone has “gotten religion,” especially the Christian religion.

As you can see, the two types of universalism, while similar on the surface, are as different as night and day. It is easy to see why pseudo-universalism is uncomfortable with the practice of Christianity. The two are philosophically incompatible. True Quaker Universalism, however, has a uniquely symbiotic relationship with Christianity. And this brings us to the Christian side of the equation.

If I did not make the Christian party happy with my remarks on Quaker Universalism, it is certain that I will not make the Quaker Universalist party happy with my remarks on Christianity. As we have seen, Christian Quakers have to accept the fact that Quakerism is radically universalist in its interpretation of Christianity. Universalist Quakers, on the other hand, have to accept the fact that Quakerism is radically Christian in its interpretation of Universalism. For, the truth is that, despite its somewhat testy relationship with conventional Christianity, Quakerism is and always has been decidedly Christian.

We have already sketched how the Quaker view of Christianity is distinctively Universalist. How is the Quaker view of Universalism distinctively Christian? It is really quite simple: Friends have always identified the Inner Light with the living Christ. Christ, in Quaker theology, is the Light [but non-evangelical Quakers do not believe that we are saved by accepting Christ as our Saviour]. “There is One, even Christ Jesus, that can speak to thy condition,” said the voice to George Fox at the moment of his convincement [notice again that the author uses the term “convincement” – which is vastly different from “conversion”]. And this Christ Jesus, Fox perceived and subsequently preached, was the Eternal Risen Christ, the Light of the World, come to teach all people who would hear his voice, not just professing Christians. To be Quaker is to be a follower of Christ, Who witnesses Within each one of us as we walk through life.

This strict equivalency of Christ with the Inner Light is the key to understanding how it is that Christianity and Universalism are so inextricably bound together in Quaker faith and practice. Not only is it possible to be both Christian and Universalist at the same time; it is the very essence and peculiar genius of Quakerism to marry the two in one powerful synthesis through the doctrine of the Inner Light. In the final analysis, the Quaker doctrine of the Inner Light is really a radically Universalist interpretation of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Spirit. To be Quaker is, therefore, to be radically Christian.

As a result of this unique marriage that Quakerism has effected, the quintessentially exclusivist text of the Christian faith – “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life; no one comes unto the Father except by me” (John 14:6) – is transformed into a powerful Universalist message for the whole world. Friends have witnessed for 350 years that the Light of Christ Within is indeed the Way, the Truth, and the Life, and no one comes to God except by it. This Light is the universal, saving, eternal, personal, resistible, persistent, and pure witness of God within every human heart, and no one is excluded from partaking of its riches. As a friend of mine is fond of saying, “Christ has returned, and everyone is invited to the reception!”

And, how fortunate for both Christianity and Universalism that Quakerism has joined them together. Fully embedded in the context of Christianity, Quaker Universalism is richly informed by all of the pregnant imagery and profound meaning of the Judeo-Christian tradition and the transforming story of Jesus Christ. In the Quaker synthesis, Christianity saves Universalism from the vapid sterility of mere abstraction. Universalism, in turn, saves Christianity from the spiritual poison of religious parochialism and exclusivity. The two not only complement each other, they are essential to one another.

In the end, the marriage metaphor we have been using is not very satisfactory, for it implies a kind of voluntary association that is not applicable here. The union of Christianity and Universalism in Quakerism is one of mutual entailment – more like two sides of one coin than like a marriage. Friends on both sides of the discussion need to face the fact that divorce is out of the question. Quakerism is, by definition, both Universalist and Christian at the same time.

After reading the above defense of Quaker universalism – and the damage the Inner Light teaching has done to evangelical Christianity – how could any member of the Evangelical Friends Church International (EFCI) accept or fellowship with non-evangelical universalist Quaker denominations?

Amazingly, the EFCI is proud of its Quaker ecumenism with all non-evangelical Quaker groups. If we dig beneath the surface, we find that non-evangelical Quakers have many ungodly beliefs and practices – everything from universalist Quakers to LGBT Quakers to atheist Quakers to Buddhist Quakers.

There is no way around it. To insist on ecumenism with non-evangelical Quaker groups is, in essence, to endorse the heresies of these non-evangelical Quaker groups. Leaders in the EFCI who insist on Quaker ecumenism know very well the heresies of these non-evangelical groups, yet they still proclaim “let the conversation continue.” What an abomination!

Edward Mott, one of my favorite fundamentalist Evangelical Friends, warned against Quaker ecumenism. Tragically, Quakers eventually ignored the warnings of Mott and others, developing ecumenical ties with non-evangelical Quakers. Click here for my blog about Edward Mott, in which I included the following quote:

“Edward Mott, who was a leading minister and teacher in [Northwest Yearly Meeting] for many years earlier in [the twentieth century], strongly and bitterly opposed any moves toward ecumenical contacts or fellowship among what were then much more fragmented groups of Friends. In his memoir, Sixty Years of Gospel Ministry, published in the late 1940s, he insisted, as he had for decades, that such efforts “cannot have the blessing of the Lord upon them.” In fact, he insisted that “The attempt to fellowship and work with unbelievers [which is what he considered other Friends to be–Ed.] spells death. Any conclusion to the contrary is ruinous to all concerned.”

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(revised 03/16/13)

Click here for my new blog on David Crowder’s book Praise Habit, in which he teaches occultish, contemplative Lectio Divina to young teens.
———————————————————————————————–

Here’s the skinny on the heretical Emergent David Crowder and his band. David Crowder played at Willoughby Hills Friends Church, in the  EFC-ER (Evangelical Friends Church-Eastern Region), on 09/18/11. My question is WHY? Why did this heretical musician play there?

Note – the following blog describes the Roman Catholic  practices of David Crowder. But this is only the tip of Crowder’s destructive theological iceberg. Crowder is heavily promoting  postmodern (Emerging/Emergent/Emergence) teachings. We can see this on his website, as well as in his participation at numerous postmodern events.

Click here for the original critique, by Defending Contending, copied verbatim. I have emphasized certain points by bolding, and inserted comments in [brackets].

Following is the Defending Contending expose:

And now the latest pockmark to appear on the already scarred face of CCM comes from one of evangelicalism’s favorite “worship leaders,” David Crowder of the David Crowder Band.

    Crowder, who is the

author of the contemplative-promoting book, Praise Habit (referring to the habits worn by Catholic nuns),

also participated in a contemplative/emergent conference with the likes of

Leonard Sweet, Chuck Fromm (founder of the event and of Worship Leader magazine), emerging leader Sally Morgenthaler, Brennan Manning proponent Michael W. Smith . . . contemplative/emerging Marva Dawn, Alpha Course leader and contemplative proponent Todd Hunter, and others.

(See more about this from the source Lighthouse Trails.)

But Crowder’s lack of discernment doesn’t end here. He recently granted an interview to the Roman Catholic “movement” known as Life Teen (whose promo video was previously featured on DefCon here) in which they state on their website:

Because of our deep Eucharistic devotion, Life Teen has developed a spirituality that is

  • 100% Catholic
  • Obedient to the Magisterium
  • Centered on the Eucharist
  • Scriptural
  • Liturgical
  • Catechetical
  • Sacramental
  • Focused on social justice

And:

On December 9, 2007, [at] the Feast of St. Juan Diego, we consecrated the Life Teen movement to the Blessed Virgin Mary and will renew our consecration annually by prayerfully participating in the St. Louis Marie de Montfort Total Consecration. [Emphasis theirs]

And:

Our entire ministry is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary so that we may be led to the feet of her son with the obedience she exemplified.

If you’re wondering why Crowder (or any evangelical for that matter) would grant an interview with the idolatrous Romanists whose teachings and beliefs are antithetical to biblical Christianity, wonder no more. Crowder–whose music may very well be in your car stereo or on your teenager’s ipod right now–concedes in this interview a rather interesting source of influence in the “formation of [his] faith.”

Here’s the question from the interviewer Matt Smith:

You are not Catholic, but on your “Illuminate” album, you sing a prayer of St. Francis of Assisi. What’s your connection?

Here’s the evangelical “worship leader’s” answer:

Much of the Catholic traditions and writings have been influential in my formation of faith and to be quite contradictory of what was stated earlier, I’ve found much inspiration there. St. Francis is a figure I’m equally attracted to and repelled by. I long for his powers of disassociation from the trappings of “stuff.” I’m beset with consumption and materialism, and he is a compelling symbol of contentment. His contentment and way of suffering terrify me.

You can read the whole interview here.

Let this be a warning fellow pilgrims, not all that glitters is gold, and not everything labeled “Christian,” that’s sold in “Christian” bookstores, and that’s played on “Christian” pop-music stations is what it’s purported to be.

Be cautious that you are not influenced by those who’ve been influenced by Rome. Be careful little eyes what you see; be careful little ears what you hear; and always be sure to choose your entertainment wisely.

FOR FURTHER READING

David Crowder Band Appears at Emergent YS Convention in Nashville (May 2004)

Heretical musician David Crowder’s book “Praise Habit” teaches occultish, contemplative Lectio Divina to young teens

 

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(revised 06/14/14)

I hope to add a few more comments tying this memorial blog with the purpose of my blogsite. First, following is the text of my tribute to Dad. This was just one of the tributes read at his memorial service. [You’ll notice I am not including first name, last name, and other personal details. I am trying to keep this blog as anonymous as possible. My wife and I have been victims of identity theft, thus we try to avoid sharing personal details even of other family members.]

Thank you, Heavenly Father, for Dad
A tribute from son David

Thank you, Heavenly Father, for Dad and all the things he taught me.

 First, Dad (and Mom) taught me how to accept Jesus Christ as my Saviour. At a very young age, I remember Dad preaching salvation messages. Also, I remember Mom giving a children’s salvation message called “The Wordless Book.” It included this song by Frances J. Roberts:

 My heart was black with sin,
U
ntil the Savior came in.
His Precious Blood I know,
Will wash me whiter than snow.
And in God’s Word I’m told
I’ll walk the streets of gold.
I’ll read my Bible and pray,
And Grow in Him every day!

I received Christ as my Saviour at a young age, thanks to my godly parents.

 Second, Dad showed me how to be a good friend. Many of you in this memorial service may have been present when my wife and I got married. Dad was my best man at the wedding. I thank the Lord that Dad was in good health at the time and got to take part in a wonderful way.

Third, Dad showed me how to be a good husband. He always showed true love and care for Mom. Truly Dad followed the admonition found in Ephesians 5:25:

Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave Himself up for her.”

Fourth, Dad showed me how to be a good father. He was a good listener and a good advice giver. I never saw him lose his temper, and I never heard him cuss. Here he followed the admonition found in Ephesians 6:4:

And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.”

Fifth, Dad showed me how to study God’s Word. Dad always seemed to have his Bible in the car when he went out. Often he also had several commentaries, a huge concordance, and other sermon preparation materials. He spent hours preparing sermons, both at home and away. But even when he wasn’t preparing sermons, he was studying God’s Word. Truly Dad followed the command found in II Timothy 2:15:

Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.”

Last, I want to share about the evening Dad passed away. I had been thinking about this the last couple days before his passing: all our loved ones, and especially our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, had in a sense been getting ready to welcome Dad into their presence. When Dad passed away that evening, it was our family’s moment of greatest sorrow. But at that very same moment, Dad was experiencing his greatest joy. His loved ones in Heaven were joyously greeting him in a great time of reunion. But far more joyous for Dad, was that, for the first time, he was meeting our Lord face to face. Regarding this wonderful moment for believers, we have these words of comfort in I Corinthians 13:12:

“For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.”

Thank you, Heavenly Father, for Dad.

————————————————————-

The memorial service was a memorable one. Dad was remembered as a righteous man of God who preached the wonderful old time gospel message of salvation. I thank the Lord for all those who said “amen” to comments like this from the speakers.

The wonderful missionary relative who preached the sermon alluded to the fact that the King James Version had been “put on the back shelf.” I believe Dad grieved over this – as do I.

Another wonderful missionary relative read Scripture and prayed. He, as well as others, commented that Dad was a righteous man of God, faithful to the end.

His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.  (Matt. 25:21, KJV)

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[blog under construction]

I stumbled across the following Internet article, that describes various Quaker denominations:

http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/ear_01/ear_01_00091.html

Here is the info on my birthright denomination (now called EFCI), copied verbatim. [Click here for the official EFCI website.] I am not saying I currently approve of the goings-on in EFCI. I am not even saying I agree with all of the info provided here. (For example, I know many churches in EFCI are no longer as biblically sound (“fundamentalist evangelical”) as they are described here. I am just providing this info as a “baseline” for my various blogs about EFCI.

Also, I am making a few changes to the original info. For example, correcting EFI to EFCI. Also, I hope to add links for the Regions, schools, etc. as I locate them.

Note – For some reason, my source did not include all the Regions of the EFCI-NA. Click here for direct links to all six Regions.

Following is the info available from novelguide.com:

962
Evangelical Friends Church International (EFCI)
5350 Broadmoor Cir. NW
Canton, OH 44709

The Evangelical Friends International came into being in 1990 when it superseded the former Evangelical Friends Alliance. The alliance had existed as an association of four autonomous Quaker groups, the Evangelical Friends Church-Eastern Region, the Rocky Mountain Yearly Meeting of Friends, the Evangelical Friends Church-Mid-America Yearly Meeting, and the Northwest Yearly Meeting of Friends. These groups represented the most theologically conservative element in the Friends movement, much of it having been influenced by the holiness movement of the nineteenth century. The Evangelical Friends Alliance had been founded in 1965 but was restricted at the end of the 1980s in recognition that the four affiliated groups in fact had come to exist as a single denomination. The members of Evangelical Friends International attribute their change to the general evangelical renewal within Christianity, the new scholarly recognition of the evangelical nature of early Quakerism, and the cooperative work of the Evangelical Friends Alliance.

The Evangelical Friends Church, Eastern Region, which existed for many years as the Ohio Yearly Meeting of Friends, was formed in 1813. As the work developed, members became attracted to the preaching of Joseph John Gurney, who had been deeply affected by Methodist holiness doctrines. Most active in promoting the holiness movement in Ohio were David Updegraff, Dougan Clark, Walter Malone, and Emma Malone. The Malones founded Cleveland Bible Institute (now Malone College) in 1892.

A generation after their movement into Ohio, Friends moved into Kansas and from there into Oklahoma, Texas, Nebraska, and Colorado. A Kansas Yearly Meeting now the Evangelical Friends Church-Mid-America Yearly Meeting was formed in 1872. In 1900 it affiliated with the Five Years Meeting but withdrew in 1937 as more conservative elements came to dominate the Meeting. In 1934 the Kansas Meeting established a mission in the Congo (now Burundi) and later founded Camp Quaker Haven at Arkansas, Kansas, for its youth.

The Northwest Yearly Meeting of Friends Church dates to the movement of Friends into the Willamette Valley of Oregon in the late-nineteenth century. The first settlers had been from Iowa and they continued their affiliation with the Iowa Yearly Meeting, but by 1893 they had grown sufficiently so that an independent Oregon Yearly Meeting could be set apart. As work expanded into Washington and Idaho, the present name was assumed. From 1902 to 1936, the Oregon Yearly Meeting was affiliated with the Five Years Meeting but withdrew because of the growing conservative theological stance of Friends in the Northwest.

The Northwest Meeting sponsors four campground facilities, Friendship Manor (a retirement home), Barclay Press (a printing company), George Fox University, and several elementary and high schools.

The Rocky Mountain Yearly Meeting was established in 1957 from congregations formerly affiliated with the Nebraska Yearly Meeting. The Nebraska Meeting was affiliated with the Friends United Meeting, and the Rocky Mountain Meeting did not continue that relationship. It sponsors a campground near Woodland Park, Colorado.

Now, the Evangelical Church-Southwest (formerly California Yearly Meeting) and Alaska Yearly Meeting have joined EFL, as well as with mission ministries in twenty-five countries, the worldwide attendance is 140,000 up from 105,000 just five years ago.

Membership: Not reported. In 1999 there were 300 congregations with 35,000 attendees.

Educational Facilities: Malone College, Canton, Ohio; Barclay College and Academy, Haviland, Kansas; Friends University, Wichita, Kansas; Houston Graduate School of Theology, Houston, Texas; George Fox University, Newberg, Oregon.

Periodicals: The Friends Voice, 5350 Broadmoor Cir. NW, Canton, OH 44709.

Sources:

Barrett, Paul W. Educating for Peace. Board of Publication, Kansas Yearly Meeting of Friends, n.d.

Choate, Ralph E. Dust of His Feet. The Author, 1965.

DeVol, Charles E. Focus on Friends. Canton, OH: Missionary Board of the Evangelical Friends Church-Eastern Division, 1982.

Discipline. Kansas Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1966.

Faith and Practice of the Rocky Mountain Yearly Meeting of Friends Church. Pueblo, CO: Riverside Printing Co., 1978.

Faith and Practice, the Book of Discipline. Canton, OH: Evangelical Friends Church-Eastern Division, 1981.

The Story of Friends in the Northwest. Newberg, OR: Barclay Press, n.d.

25th Anniversary Committee. Friends Ministering Together. Pueblo, CO: Riverside Printing Co., 1982.

961
Evangelical Friends Church, Eastern Region (EFC-ER)
5350 Broadmoor Circle NW
Canton, OH 44709

Prior to 1971 known as the Ohio Yearly Meeting of Friends, the Evangelical Friends Church is that branch of the Friends most influenced by the holiness movement. The Evangelical Friends have a programmed worship service with a minister who preaches. Formed in 1813, the Ohio Yearly Meeting of Friends supported the Gurneyites, followers of Joseph John Gurney, a promoter of beliefs in the final authority of the Bible, atonement, justification, and sanctification. After the Civil War, the Ohio Yearly Meeting became open to the holiness movement through the activities of such workers as David Updegraff, Dougan Clark, Walter Malone and Emma Malone. The latter founded the Cleveland Bible Insititute (now the Malone College) in 1892, and it now serves an interdenominational holiness constituency.

The Evangelical Friends Church, never a member of the Five Years Meeting, has become a haven of conservative congregations who have withdrawn from the Friends United Meeting in both the United States and Canada. Mission work is sustained in Taiwan and India. The church participates in the Evangelical Friends Alliance.

Membership: In 1990 there were 8,610 members in 93 churches.

Educational Facilities: Malone College, Canton, Ohio.

Periodicals: The Facing Bench.

Sources:

DeVol, Charles E. Focus on Friends. Canton, OH: Missionary Board of the Evangelical Friends Church–Eastern Division, 1982.

Faith and Practice, the Book of Discipline. Canton, OH: Evangelical Friends Church–Eastern Region, 1981.

970
Northwest Yearly Meeting of Friends Church
200 N. Maridian St.
Newberg, OR 97132-2714

Quaker settlers in the northwest first gathered in the fertile Willamette Valley in Oregon in the late nineteenth century. These early settlers were from Iowa and associated with the Iowa Yearly Meeting. In 1893 they were officially established as an independent yearly meeting by the Iowa Yearly Meeting with the name Oregon Yearly Meeting of Friends. Because some churches were located in Washington and Idaho, the name was changed to Northwest Yearly Meeting of Friends. From 1902 to 1936, the Oregon Yearly Meeting was a part of the Five Years Meeting, but has in more recent years affiliated with the Evangelical Friends International.

The doctrine of the Northwest Yearly Meeting (NWYM) is biblically based with a central message of the Lordship of Jesus Christ. The emphasis of salvation through the Lord coupled with a strong sense of social commitment have been the two dominant themes of the meeting.

NWYM maintains a relationship with four camping facilities, Friendsview Manor (a retirement home), Barclay Press (a publishing company), George Fox University, and several elementary and high schools. Missionary work is carried out in cooperation with the Evangelical Friends International. A joint mission program is supported in Mexico, Rwanda, Burundi, Taiwan, Peru, and Bolivia.

Membership: In 2001, NWYM reported 7,017 members, 51 churches, including six extension churches. Ten mission points/ church plants are under the care of the Board of Evangelism.

Educational Facilities: George Fox University, Newberg, Oregon.

Periodicals: The Friends Voice. Send orders to 2748 E. Pikes Peak Ave., Colorado Springs, CO 80909.

Sources:

This Story of the Friends in the Northwest. Newberg, OR: Barclay Press, n.d.

973
Rocky Mountain Yearly Meeting
Beaver Park Friends Church
140 Illinois Ave.
Penrose, CO 81240

The Rocky Mountain Yearly Meeting was established in 1957 by separation from the Nebraska Yearly Meeting and did not continue the latter’s affiliation with the Friends United Meeting. Worship is programmed. Mission work is carried out by the Navajo Indians at the Rough Rock Friends Mission near Chinle, Arizona and by other individuals through cooperation with Evangelical Friends Mission. Quaker Ridge Camp is maintained north of Woodland Park, Colorado.

Membership: Not reported. In 1997 the meeting reported 1,162 members in 20 congregations located in Colorado, New Mexico, Nebraska, and Arizona. These include four Navajo in the Rough Rock area.

Educational Facilities: Barclay College, Haviland, Kansas.

Friends University, Wichita, Kansas.
George Fox College, Newberg, Oregon.

Periodicals: The Traveling Minute. • Friends Voice. Send orders to 600 E. 3rd St., Newberg, OR 97132.

Sources:

Faith and Practice of the Rocky Mountain Yearly Meeting of Friends Church. Pueblo, CO: Riverside Printing Co., 1978.

25th Anniversary Committee. Friends Ministering Together. Pueblo, CO: Riverside Printing Co., 1982.

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